Examples of system classifications
The systems are divided into classes according to different characteristics, and depending on the halls to be solved, different classification principles can be chosen. Attempts have been made to classify systems according to the type of the displayed object (technical, biological, economic and similar systems), the kind of scientific direction used for their modeling (mathematical, physical, chemical, etc. .), interaction with the environment (open and closed), magnitude and complexity.It was also suggested to divide the systems into: deterministic and stochastic, abstract and material (existing in objective reality), etc.
Any classifications are always relative. So, in the deterministic system, we can find the elements of stochasticity and, on the contrary, the deterministic system can be considered a special case of stochastic (with probability equal to one).Similarly, if we take into account the dialectics of the subjective and objective in the system, then the relativity of the separation of systems into abstract and objectively existing: this can be the stages of development of one and the same same system.
Indeed, natural and artificial objects, reflected in the mind of a person, act as abstractions, concepts, and abstract projects of the created systems are embodied in real objects that can be felt, and when reflected in the study again reflected as an abstract system.>
However, the relativity of classifications should not stop researchers. The goal of any classification is to limit the choice of approaches to the system's mapping, to compare selected techniques and methods of system analysis to selected classes, and to give recommendations on the choice of methods for the corresponding class of systems. In this case, the system, in principle, can be simultaneously characterized by several features, i.e. It can be found simultaneously in different classifications, each of which can be useful in selecting modeling methods.
Consider some of the most important classifications of systems.
Open and closed systems. The notion of the open system was introduced by L. von Bertalanffy. The main distinguishing features of open systems are the ability to exchange mass, energy and information with the environment. Unlike them, it is assumed (of course, up to the accepted sensitivity of the model) that closed, or closed, systems are completely deprived of this ability, i.e. are isolated from the environment.
Special cases are possible: for example, gravity and energy processes are not taken into account, but only information exchange with the environment is reflected in the system model; then they talk about information-permeable or, respectively, about information-impenetrable systems.
One of the most important features of open systems is as follows. In open systems, thermodynamic regularities appear that seem paradoxical and contradict the second law of thermodynamics . Recall that the second law of thermodynamics ("the second beginning"), formulated for closed systems, characterizes the system as entropy growth, aspiration for disorder, destruction.
This law manifests itself in open systems (for example, the aging of biological systems). However, unlike closed systems in open systems, it is possible to "enter entropy", its decrease; similar systems can maintain their high level and even evolve towards increasing order of complexity i.e. in them the regularity of self-organization considered in the next paragraph (although Bertalanffy has not yet used this term) appears. That is why it is important for the management system to maintain a good exchange of information with the environment.