Color characteristics, color synthesis methods, color spaces and models
Each color has quantitatively measured physical characteristics (spectral composition, brightness).
Brightness . Equally saturated colors attributed to the same color of the spectrum may differ from each other by the degree of brightness. For example, when the brightness decreases, the blue color gradually approaches black. Any color with the maximum decrease in brightness becomes black.
Lightness . The degree of closeness of color to white is called lightness. Any color at the maximum increase in lightness becomes white. With different amounts of reflected light, the chromatic color looks bright or dark. Its extreme states are white and black.
Another concept of lightness refers not to a specific color, but to a shade of the spectrum, tone. Colors having different tones, all other equal characteristics, are perceived with different lightness. The yellow tone itself is the lightest, and blue or blue-violet is the darkest.
Saturation is the intensity of a specific tone, i. e. the degree of visual distinction of chromatic color from the achromatic (gray) equal in lightness, the depth of color. The purer, the more noticeable the chromatic color on the background of gray, so it is more saturated. With decreasing saturation, each chromatic color approaches gray. A saturated color can be called juicy, deep, less saturated - muffled, close to gray. The completely unsaturated color will be a shade of gray. Saturation (English saturation ) is one of the three coordinates in the HSL and HSV color spaces . In the subtractive model of color formation, for example, when mixing paints on paper, a decrease in saturation will be observed when white, gray, black paints are added, as well as additional color is added.
Color Tone is the color characteristic responsible for its position in the spectrum: any chromatic color can be attributed to some specific spectral color. Shades that have the same position in the spectrum, but differ in saturation and brightness, belong to the same tone. For example, if you change the tone of the blue color to the green side of the spectrum, it changes to blue, the reverse - to violet.
Tone is one of the three main characteristics of color along with saturation and lightness. Sometimes the change in color tone is correlated with the heat of color. So, red, orange and yellow shades, as appropriate to the fire and causing the corresponding psychophysiological reactions, are called warm tones, blue, blue and violet, like the color of water and ice, are cold.
Additive and subtractive color blending
Additive color mixing is a method of color synthesis based on addition of additive colors, i.e. colors directly radiating objects. The method is based on the features of the structure of the human visual analyzer, in particular on the phenomenon of metamerism.
In England, the main colors were long considered red, yellow and blue. James Maxwell in 1861 proposed an additive synthesis of color as a way of obtaining color images and introduced the system RGB (red - green - blue).
Mixing the three primary colors (red, green and blue) in a certain ratio, you can reproduce most of the perceived colors.
One example of the use of additive synthesis is a computer monitor, the color image based on the RGB color space and obtained from red, green and blue dots. This system currently dominates color reproduction systems for cathode-ray tubes of monitors and televisions.
In contrast to the additive blending of colors, there are schemes subtractive synthesis. In this case, the color is formed by subtracting light from certain colors reflected from the paper (or passing through the transparent medium). The most common model of subtractive synthesis is CMYK (from English Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, Kontur or Key plate - Black, ie blue-green (cyan), magenta, yellow, black), is widely used in printing and color photography.
Subtractive synthesis of color - obtaining color by subtracting individual spectral components from spectral-uniform white light.
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