HSV color model
HSV (from English Hue, Saturation, Value - tone, saturation, value), or HSB (from English Hue, Saturation Brightness - top, saturation, brightness), - a color model in which the color coordinates are the following parameters:
• Hue (hue scale) - color top, for example, red, green or blue-blue ;
• Saturation - saturation. The more this parameter is, the purer the color, so the saturation is sometimes called cleanliness colors. Than this parameter is closer to zero, the closer the color to neutral gray;
• Value (color value) or Brightness.
The model is a non-linear transformation of the RGB model. The color presented in the HSV depends on the device to which it will be output, since the HSV is the conversion of the RGB model, which also depends on the device. The HSV model is often used in graphics programs, since it is convenient for working with images.
A visual representation of the HSV color model. The three-dimensional HSV space on a two-dimensional screen is usually represented in two ways: as a color wheel and as a color ring.
The color circle is the cross section of the cylinder, the brightness engine corresponds to the height of the cylinder. Visualization in the form of a color wheel has become widely known for the first versions of the programs Corel. At the moment it is rarely used, more often use the ring model developed by Macromedia.
In the color ring, the color tone is represented as a rainbow ring. The saturation and color value (brightness) are selected using a triangle inscribed in this ring. Its vertical axis, as a rule, regulates the saturation, and the horizontal one allows you to change the color value. To select a color on the ring, specify the tone, and then the desired color from the triangle.
HSV and color perception. It is believed that the HSV model is closer to the human perception of colors than RGB and CMYK. RGB and CMYK define color as a combination of primary colors, and HSV displays color information in a clearer form: "What color? How rich is it? Is it light or dark?
The HSL color model represents a color similar to, and perhaps even more comprehensibly, than HSV.
HSL and AHSL color models
HSL , or HSI (from English Hue, Saturation, Lightness ( Intensity ), is a color model in which the color coordinates are tone, saturation, and lightness.
HSV, HSL and AHSL - different color models (English Lightness - lightlog, which differs from brightness).
AHSL is an alternative HSL model that differs fundamentally from HSL in defining Saturation .
In AHSL, or AHLI (from English Hue, Saturation, Lightness/Intensity ) , - color coordinates are also tone, saturation and lightness:
• Alternative is an alternative version of the HSL color model;
• Hue - tint from 0 ° to 360 ° (red, orange, yellow, green, blue, blue, purple);
• Saturation - the color saturation is from 0 to 255. Practically characteristic 5 corresponds to the transparency level of the layer with the given color (given hue H and lightness L ) , when under it there is a layer with the corresponding given black and white color, determined by the average arithmetic values of RGB ropes;
Lightness - lightness from -100 to 100. The value -100 corresponds to black color and the value 100 to white.
RYB color model
The RYB model (English Red , Yellow, Blue ) is a color model of subtractive synthesis based on drawing a color from red, yellow and blue (blue). This historically formed system preceded the emergence of the science of color and was circulating in Europe during the Renaissance and the early modern times. It does not fit modern ideas about the perception of the spectrum of visible light in the three-stimulus model of vision, but its cultural influence is still preserved in the visual arts.
Other color models
The color system of Munsell is the color space developed by Professor Albert Mansel at the beginning of the 20th century. (Figure 7.7).
Fig. 7.7. Mansell's color system
The color in it is described with the help of three numbers:
• the color top (hue, English hue ) ;
• values (lightness, brightness, English value ) ;
• Chroma (chroma, saturation, English chroma, saturation ) .
Color tone. Each horizontal circle in the Mansell system is divided into five basic tones: red (English Red ) , Yellow (English Yellow ) , green Green ) , blue Blue ) and purple ( Purple ) . There are five transitional tones between them. Each of these 10 shades is divided into 10 sub-latitudes, 100 integer values are assigned to 100 tones. Two colors of the same value and chromium on opposite sides of the circle are mixed in a neutral gray of the same value.
The value, or lightness, changes but the vertical axis from the black (0) bottom to the white (10) at the top. Neutral colors are arranged along the axis.
Chrome (roughly equivalent to saturation) is measured radially from the center of each horizontal slice. A smaller value of chromium corresponds to a less pure color.
Mansell was the first to divide the color into independent values of tone, lightness and saturation. His system was based on careful experiments on the study of human color perception, a serious scientific basis was put under it.
Thanks to this, the color system of Munsell survived many systems of that time, and although in most applications it was replaced by more modern models, it is still used in some areas.
The NCS color model (Natural Color System is a natural color system) is based on a system of opposite colors and has found wide application in the industry for product color descriptions. When describing the color in the NCS, six simple colors are used: white, black, red, yellow, green and blue (ie those that can not be described by a combination of the other two). All other colors are represented by a combination of basic colors (for example, orange - red and yellow). The color description takes into account the proximity to black - the darkness of the color, the purity of the color (saturation), and the percentage ratio between the two primary colors.
Panton color model , PMS (English Pantone Matching System) - a standardized color matching system. Uses digital identification of image colors for printing with both mixed and triad paints. It has several analogues.
RAL color model - German color standard for color space, divided into ranges. Each color is denoted by a single-digit index. A universal color selection system is in demand in many industries where a correct understanding of color is needed.
The YUV and YIQ color models represent the color as three components. The luminance component contains an image in grayscale, and the two components contain information for restoring the desired color. Models are used in broadcasting and storage/processing of video data.
The color models YCbCr, Y'CbCr or Y Pb /Cb Pr /Cr are also written as Y'CBCR or YCBCR - RGB encoding used to transmit color images in component video and digital photography.
There are several basic ways to represent colors on the Internet.
• In the form # 123ABC. A representation in the form of three pairs of hexadecimal digits, where each pair is responsible for its color:
- the first two digits are red;
- two in the middle - green;
- The last two digits are blue.
It is also possible to have a brief representation of the color in the form # ABC, which will be interpreted as # ALVBCS.
• In the form of keywords, for example green, black. To avoid cases where the specified keyword is not perceived by the browser, use only a small set of primary colors used in all browsers.
• In the form of rgb (*, *, *), where * - numbers from 0 to 255, denoting the number of the corresponding color (red, green, blue) in the resulting color.
• In the form rgb a (*, *, *, *), where the first three numbers are the color components specified in the range 0 to 255, and the last value is the opacity level, given by fractional numbers from 0 to 1.Color models were not created for graphics programs, they were conceived and improved over the centuries by physicists such as Sir Isaac Newton, organizations such as CIE ( Comission Internationale d Eclairage ) and the National Television Standards Committee (NTSC - National >, software manufacturers, such as Adobe, and finally hardware manufacturers such as Apple. In graphics programs, various models are applied to determine which q ETA will be displayed in the color mode. In the Photoshop program, color models are used to create and process full-color images, except images in the following modes: bit, indexed colors, grayscale and duplex, in which none of the color models does not apply. These modes use the built-in color table, which contains all available values.
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