Color space, Color model, Color spaces - Informatics for the humanities

Color space

Color Space is a color representation model based on the use of color coordinates. The color space is constructed in such a way that any color is represented by a point having certain coordinates.

Color spaces are described by a set of color coordinates and rules for building colors. For example, RGB is a three-dimensional color space, where each color is described by a set of three coordinates - each of them corresponds to a component of the color in the decomposition into red, green and blue. The number of coordinates defines the dimension of the space. There are many color spaces of different dimensions - from one-dimensional ones, which can describe only a monochrome image, up to six- and ten-dimensional ones, for example, as the space CMYKLcLm (from Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, Key color , lightCyan, lightMagenta ) . High-dimensional spaces are most often used for printing purposes plotters or apparatus for color proofing.

Color model

Various methods of coding are used to transmit and store color in computer graphics. In general, the color is described by a set of numbers - coordinates in a certain color system.

The color model is a mathematical model for describing the representation of colors in the form of sets of numbers (usually three or, more rarely, four) values, called color components or color coordinates. If a system with more than three components is used, the spectrum of reflection or emission of the source is coded, which allows more accurate description of the physical properties of the color. All possible color values ​​defined by the model define the color space. Each model presents a certain range of colors in the form of two- or three-dimensional space.

This method will allow you to transfer color information between computers, programs and peripherals.

The standard methods of storing and processing color in a computer are predetermined by the properties of the human eye. The color model defines the correspondence between the perceived and stored in the memory person colors and colors, formed on the output devices.

Color spaces

LMS color space. The retina of the human eye has three receptors (cones) responsible for color vision. A system based on the responses of the cones of the human eye is the LMS color model.

CIE color space XYZ . Historically, XYZ is used to measure color, a three-dimensional color space of standard color coordinates (primary colors: red, green and blue). This is the standard color model, defined in a strict mathematical sense by CIE ( International Commission on Illumination - International Commission on Lighting) in 1931. The CIE XYZ model is a master model for almost all other color models used in technical areas.

Color spaces based on CIE XYZ . Color models can be classified by their target orientation:

Lah - an equally contrasting color space in which the distance between the colors corresponds to the feel of their difference;

• additive models - where the color is obtained by adding to black (class RGB);

• substractive models - obtaining color by subtracting its components from the white light (CMY, CMYK);

• Models for encoding color information when compressing images and video;

• mathematical models useful for image processing, for example HSV;

• Models, where the color match is tabulated, for example Panton.

All these models are reduced to XYZ by appropriate mathematical transformations.

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