The concept of link is included in any definition of the system and ensures the emergence and preservation of its integral properties. This concept simultaneously characterizes both the structure (statics) and the functioning (dynamics) of the system.
Communication is defined as a limitation of the degree of freedom of elements. Indeed, the elements interacting with each other lose some of their properties that they potentially possessed in a free state.
In terms of system definitions, the terms link and relation are commonly used as synonyms. However, there are different points of view: some researchers consider the relationship as a special case of the relationship, others - on the contrary, consider the ratio as a special case ; thirdly, they suggest using the notion link to describe the statics of the system, its structure, and the notion relation to characterize some actions in the process of the system's functioning (dynamics).
The question of the sufficiency and completeness of the network of connections is not resolved (and, apparently, hardly can be solved in general form), so that the system can be considered a system. One approach to solving this problem is proposed, for example. Q. I. Nikolaev and In. M. Brook , who believe that in order for the system not to split up into parts, it is necessary to ensure that the total force (power) of the links between the elements of the system is exceeded; W n " over the total power of the connections between the elements of the system and the elements of the environment, i.e. external relations
Unfortunately, in practice, such measurements (especially in organizational systems) are difficult to implement, but trends in this ratio can be estimated with the help of indirect factors.
Links can be characterized by direction, strength, character (or type). By the first sign, the links are divided into directional and non-directional. On the second - on strong and weak (sometimes trying to enter the "scale" link strengths for a particular task). By the nature (the kind), the connections subordinates, derivations (or genetic), equals (or indifferent), controls are distinguished.
Relationships in specific systems can be simultaneously characterized by several of these characteristics.
An important role in the modeling of systems is played by the notion of feedback, which is the basis of self-regulation, the development of systems, their adaptation to changing conditions of existence.
For example, on the basis of feedbacks, multi-contour models of managing economic systems were proposed. When developing models for the operation of complex self-regulating, self-organizing systems, they tend to have both negative and positive feedbacks at the same time. The use of these concepts is based, in particular, on simulation simulation.
The notion purpose and related concepts of expediency, purposefulness underlie the development of the system.
A lot of attention is paid to the study of these concepts in philosophy, psychology, cybernetics. The process of goal-setting and the corresponding process of justifying goals in organizational systems is very complicated. Throughout the period of the development of philosophy and the theory of cognition, there has been a development of ideas about the goal.
Analysis of the definitions of the goal and related concepts shows that, depending on the stage of cognition of the object, the stage of system analysis in the concept of "target" (see Figure 3.2) - from ideal aspirations (the goal is the expression of the activity of consciousness, "man and social systems have the right to formulate goals, the achievement of which, as they know, is impossible, but to which one can continuously approach") , to specific goals - the end results achievable within a certain time interval, formulated sometimes even in terms of the final product of activity.
In some definitions, the target is transformed, taking different shades within the conditional "scale" - from ideal aspirations to the material incarnation, the final result of the activity.
Fig. 3.2. Goal Definition
For example, along with the above definition, the goal is called "what i aspires what worships and for what fights the person ( struggles implies reachability in a certain time interval), and in a number of works, the goal is understood as the model of the desired future (here, in the concept of the model , you can put different shades of realizability) and, in addition, a concept is introduced that characterizes the kind of goal (" the dream is a goal not provided with the means to achieve it" ).
The contradiction in the concept of "goal" and " - the need to be a motivation for action, leading reflection (the term was introduced by PK Anokhin ) or the "leading idea", and at the same time the material embodiment of this idea, i.e. be attainable, has been manifested since the inception of this concept: thus, the ancient Indian "artha" meant at the same time motive & quot ;, cause & quot ;, desire & quot ;, target and even the "method .
In United States there was no term "goal" at all. This term is borrowed from German and has a meaning close to the concept of "target", "finish", "hit point". There are several terms in English reflecting different shades of the concept of the goal, within the "scale" under consideration.
Purpose (goal-intention, purposefulness, will), object and objective (goal-direction of action, direction of movement), aim (target-aim, sight, indication), goal (target-destination, task), target (goal target for shooting, plan), end (goal-finish, end, end, limit).
The essence of the dialectic interpretation of the concept of the goal is revealed in the theory of knowledge, which shows the relationship between the concepts of the goal, evaluation, means, integrity (and its "self-movement").
The study of the interconnection of these concepts shows that in principle the behavior of the same system can be described also in terms of the goal or target functionals linking the goals with the means of achieving them (such a view is called axiological), and without mentioning the concept of the goal, in terms of direct influence of some elements or describing their parameters on others, in terms of "state spaces" (or causally). Therefore, the same situation, depending on the propensity and previous experience of the researcher, can be represented in one way or another. In most practical situations, a better understanding and description of the state of the system and the prospects for its development is provided by a combination of these concepts.
In order to reflect the dialectical contradiction embodied in the concept of "objective", the following definition is given to the TSB: the goal is "a pre-conceivable result of the conscious activity of a person, a group of people" .
Pre-conceivable & quot ;, but still result & quot ;, the embodiment of the design; It is also emphasized that the concept of purpose is connected with the person, his "conscious activity", i.e. with the presence of consciousness, and to characterize purposeful, negentropic tendencies at lower stages of the development of matter, it is customary to use other terms.
This understanding of the goal is very important in the organization of collective decision-making processes in management systems.
In real situations, it is necessary to specify in what sense at this stage of the system's consideration the concept "goal" is used, which should be more reflected in its formulation - ideal aspirations , which will help the collective of persons, decision makers, see the prospects, or real opportunities, ensuring the timeliness of the completion of the next stage on the way to the desired result.
Analysis of the definitions of the concept "goal" and the graphic interpretation of the "blur" philosophical interpretations of the goal (see Figure 3.2), were an important step towards the practical implementation of goal-setting processes.
Later on in the works In. A. Chabrovsky, GM Vapnae, A. M. Gendin was developed very useful for practical application of the idea of two different concepts of the goal: "goal of activity (actual, specific goal) and endless in content goal-aspiration (goal-ideal, potential goal); the concept of the analysis of the process of formulating and structuring goals from the standpoint of dialectical logic was proposed, and an idea was expressed about the unity of purpose, the means (option) for achieving it, and the evaluation criterion.
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