Composition of a personal computer - Computer Science and Information Technology

Composition of the personal computer

The minimum composition of a personal computer includes a system unit, keyboard, monitor and mouse (Figure 3.4).

The system unit contains basic electronic circuits and computer control devices, external memory devices, power supply.

Keyboard is a standard input device that sends characters or commands to the computer.

A monitor, or display, is a standard output device that displays information in the form of signs, graphic and video images on an electronic screen. Modern software tools use the monitor as a tool for organizing graphical interaction with the user, in particular for joint input of information using the keyboard and mouse.

Mouse is a pointer positioning device on the screen that allows you to select, move, change objects, give commands without using the keyboard.

Devices in the computer system must be compatible. Compatibility - the ability of various objects to interact. Sources and recipients of information, hardware components of the equipment must be compatible to perform operations. Compatibility must have a video recorder and a TV, telephone and radio communication elements. Quality, the opposite of compatibility, -

Personal Computer

Fig. 3.4. Personal computer

incompatibility, conflicts when processing information. In a computer system, data processing and exchange are performed under the condition of compatibility of devices and programs of different manufacturers (send to the monitor, printer, get from the keyboard, mouse, modem, work with the disk).

The system unit contains a motherboard, or main board, expansion cards (controllers and adapters), various data storage devices (hard disk, drives, CD-R/RW, DVD-R/RW), power supply unit (Figure 3.5). On the front panel of the system unit there are buttons for turning on the computer, on the back there are connectors for connecting external devices.

Self-test and computer boot. It is recommended to connect the system unit with cables with peripherals (keyboard, mouse, monitor, printer, sound columns) before turning on.

On the front panel of the system unit there is a power on/off button, a forced reset button Reset (can be combined with a power button) and hard disk and drive indicators.

There are three options for loading the operating system into the computer's RAM.

1. Cold start & quot ;. The computer was turned off and turned on by the power button. At the same time, the computer devices are self-checked and the download starts.

2. Reboot the system after simultaneously pressing the three keys of the keyboard Ctrl, Alt, Del. The power supply does not turn off, but pressing , Alt, Del clears the memory.

System Unit

Fig. 3.5. System unit

3. Hot start & quot ;. Forced reset by the Reset button is used when the computer hangs up when the Ctrl, Alt, Del. keys can not be restarted simultaneously.

Power On Self Test (POST) after the computer is turned on or after a forced reboot tests the processor for execution of some commands; permanent memory - to read data; clock generator, memory cells, video system and, finally, keyboard, ports, hard drive, disk drives. When the technical state check is completed successfully, the process of loading the operating system into the main memory starts.

After turning off the power, it takes a while for the computer to completely stop rotating the computer's hard drive, so you must restart the computer no earlier than 30 seconds.

The motherboard, or motherboard, is the main electronic board of the computer on which are located: the central processor, RAM modules, read-only memory, schemes for interaction with other devices (controllers for controlling peripheral devices, such as a monitor, keyboard, drives), connectors for additional expansion cards (Figure 3.6). Elements of the board are integrated microcircuits, connected by conductive lines (bus) between themselves and with ports (connectors for connecting external devices).


Fig. 3.6. Motherboard

The main elements of the motherboard that determine the performance of the computer are the processor and RAM.

thematic pictures

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