Composition of Information Systems, Functional Subsystems of...

IS composition

The system is complex if it can be described in more than one language (by the definition of Academician AI Berg). One of the main properties of IS is the divisibility into subsystems. This property in terms of its development and operation has a number of advantages, which include:

• Simplify the development and modernization of IP as a result of the specialization of design teams by subsystems;

• ease of implementation and delivery of finished subsystems in accordance with the order of execution of work;

• Convenience in the operation of IP due to the specialization of employees in the domain.

Typically, the functional and providing subsystems are distinguished. Functional subsystems Information systems serve certain types of activity of the economic system (enterprises), characteristic for the structural units of the economic system and (or) management functions. Integration of functional subsystems into a unified system is achieved through the creation and operation of such providing subsystems, as information, software, mathematical, technical, technological, organizational, personnel and legal subsystems.

Functional subsystems of information systems

The functional subsystem of IP is a complex of economic problems with a high degree of information exchanges (links) between tasks. task will be understood as a certain process of processing information with a clearly defined set of input and output information (for example, charging piecework wages, accounting for the arrival of materials, ordering a purchase, and t .). The composition of functional subsystems is largely due to the peculiarities of the economic system, its sectoral affiliation, form of ownership, size, nature of the enterprise's activities.

Functional subsystems of IP can be built on different principles: objective: functional; problematic; mixed (subject-functional).

So, taking into account the objective of the direction of using IP in the economic processes of an industrial enterprise, the subsystems for managing production and financial resources are distinguished: material and technical supply management, production management of finished products, management personnel, sales management of finished products, financial management. At the same time, the subsystems consider the solution of problems at all levels of management, ensuring the integration of information flows along the vertical. For the implementation of management functions, the functional subsystems are distinguished: forecasting; rationing; planning (technical and economic and operational); accounting; analysis; regulation, which are implemented at various levels of management and are integrated into the management contours: Marketing, Production, Logistics, Finance (examples are shown in Table 8.1).

Table 8.1

Troubleshooting functional subsystems

Management Levels

Functional subsystems

Marketing

Production

Logistics

Finance

Strategic

New products and services. Research and development

Production capacity. Choice of technology

Material sources. Commodity forecast

Financial sources. Choosing a Tax Model

Tactical

Sales volume analysis and planning

Analysis and planning of production programs

Procurement volume analysis and planning

Cash Flow Analysis and Planning

Online

Processing customer orders. Billing and invoicing

Processing Production Orders

Warehouse operations. Purchase Orders

Maintaining books of account

An example of the application of the approach to the allocation of functional subsystems based on management functions can be the multi-user network complex (MSC) of the full automation of the corporation "Galaxy" (JSC "New Atlant"), which includes four automation loops in accordance with the management functions: the planning contour; an operational control loop; the accounting and control loop; analysis contour.

The problematic principle of the formation of subsystems reflects the need for flexible and prompt decision-making on individual problems within the DSS, for example, solving business planning and project management tasks. Such subsystems can be implemented in the form of local information systems that import data from the corporate information system (in particular, the business planning system based on the Project-Expert application package), or as special subsystems within the corporate IP (for example, the information system of the manager) .

In practice, the mixed (subject-functional) approach is most often used, according to which the construction of the functional structure of IP is a division of it into subsystems by the nature of economic activity, which must correspond to the structure of the object and the management system, and also to the nature of the control functions performed. Using this approach, we can distinguish the following typical set of functional subsystems in the general structure of the enterprise.

Functional principle: strategic development (SR); technical and economic planning (TEP); accounting and analysis of economic activity (BU and AHD).

Subject principle (resource management subsystem): technical preparation of production (CCI); basic and auxiliary production (P); product quality (CP); logistics (L); marketing (M); frames (K).

Subsystems, built on a functional principle, cover all types of economic activity of an enterprise (production, supply, sales, personnel, finance). Subsystems constructed on the basis of an objective principle refer primarily to the operational level of resource management. The structure of IS subsystems, separated according to the functional-object principle, is shown in Fig. 8.4.

The structure of the functional subsystems of IS, allocated according to the functional-object principle

Fig. 8.4. The structure of the functional subsystems of IS, allocated according to the functional-object principle

thematic pictures

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