After studying chapter 10, the student must:


• the main methods, ways and means of obtaining, storing, processing information in the network;

be able to

• work with information in local and global computer networks;


• Computer skills as a means of managing information on the network.

The ever-growing volume of information in the world and the gradual "settling" it on computers for the purpose of compact storage generated the problem, which is the ability to quickly transfer large amounts of digital data to a large number of users.

For the first time, the need to exchange digital data arose in the mid-1960s, when still cumbersome, but already ceased to be exotic, computers "settled" in all major scientific centers and universities. Development of complex equipment: supersonic aircraft, rockets, spacecraft; creation of global climate models; calculation of the consequences of nuclear explosions or nuclear war; the genesis of genetic engineering; technology design and production of large integrated circuits required the pooling efforts of thousands of scientists, engineers, technologists.

Combining efforts is first of all the exchange of information in real time. This problem was solved in the past in three ways.

• Between the computers moved media with data recorded on them (information). First, paper carriers (punch cards, punched tapes), then magnetic media (tapes, disk packages - a prototype of modern hard drives, floppy disks). Later, optical media (CD, DVD, Blu-ray), portable hard drives, "purely electronic" appeared. media - flash memory cards. The volumes of information stored on media are constantly growing. They are widely used to store information, but moving media with respect to data exchange has significant drawbacks. The actual media and devices are required to read and write from it, it takes time to write and read information from the media. Media is moved by the user - a person, the speed of information exchange is low. There is a high probability of loss and damage to the media, hence, loss of information.

• Many users connected to one computer (it was called mainframe - main, main) connected to terminals, devices that conduct dialogue with the mainframe and contain only the monitor, video adapter and keyboard. The disadvantage of the method is obvious - a small number of terminal sites (users), limited range of tens of meters (one building), large costs of communication - each terminal needs to reach an individual communication line. Today the way is experiencing a rebirth. The appearance of laptops, cell phones with built-in modems, pocket personal communicators (all serve as terminals) allows the user not to install and store "in their homes" application programs, and use their network versions, the data is also received from the network and stored on the network. A lot of servers in local and global networks actually play the role of mainframe, but divided into parts, spaced across the planet.

• The first attempts to create a local network from two computers by connecting them through a specialized interface device. The pairing method was highly specialized, created specifically for each pair of computers. Connect to each other only certain types of computers with the same type of software.

By the mid-1980s. there were conditions for creating fundamentally different local networks, which became the basis for global networks. Large and very large integrated circuits, compact hard drives were developed; created small-sized cheap computers that replaced the workplaces of terminals and really become single-user, personal. Standard agreements (protocols) and technologies for building local networks have been created and approved. Standard requirements for communication lines and interface devices, which are included in each computer as a network adapter, network card or modem. Personal computers began to be used in all spheres of human activity.

The definition of a network of computers is given in Federal Law No. 149-FZ of July 27, 2006, "On Information, Information Technologies and Information Protection." Article 2 Basic concepts used in this Federal Law reads (item 4): "... information and telecommunications network - a technological system designed to transmit information on the communication lines, access to which is carried out using computer facilities". In the definition, there are three qualifying signs - the use of computers or other devices controlled by them, the availability of a communication line for the transmission of information, the presence of telecommunications equipment, which, in conjunction with communication lines, forms a single technological system for the transmission of information.

The information and telecommunications network (hereinafter simply a network) is responsible for the following tasks:

• exchange of digital data necessary for the functioning of the network (addresses, control data, connection establishment information, etc.);

• sharing of hardware, software and information resources of one remote computer by many users;

• Remote work on the foreign computer from your workplace, including setting up, running and executing any programs;

• sending text messages;

• forwarding containers with information of various types (files);

• creating information stores for collective access;

• human communication - computer: mail, telephone, telegraph, conferences, etc.

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