Computer networks, General information - Informatics

Computer networks

After studying chapter 9, the bachelor must:

know

• basic concepts and components of telecommunications networks;

• concepts of the seven-level network model, the purpose and the basic functions of each level;

• The purpose and features of the TCP/IP and IPX/SPX stacks

• network characteristics and quality of services;

• the main types of network devices;

• methods of access to the network, switching and data transfer, ways of addressing the network, principles and some algorithms for routing;

• the most common types of local and global networks;

be able to

connect the computer to the telecommunications network;

own

• skills of working in the local network and the Internet.

General

The emergence of computer networks is due to the development of computer technology and telecommunications technologies. A computer network can be represented as;

• A distributed computing system in which a group of computers solves one common task, exchanging data among themselves in an automatic mode;

• a long-range transmission system that uses data processing methods (coding, multiplexing, etc.) inherent in various telecommunications technologies.

The first computer network includes the global network with packet switching ARPAnet (Advanced Research Projects Agency network), which was established in 1969 in the United States to combine supercomputers Defense and research centers located in different cities. The emergence and development of global networks was facilitated by the availability of telephone transmission lines, which with the help of modems provided multiple users with remote access to the shared resources of the supercomputer.

The introduction and intensive development of local networks contributed to the development of large integrated circuits and the creation on their basis of personal computers. The appearance of local networks dates back to the beginning of the 1980s, when the widely used Apple II computer and hard disk drives (hard disk) to it were still so expensive that colleges could not purchase them for training. Corvus paid attention to this problem and created the first local computer network intended for use in the education system. Schools purchased one hard drive of a sufficiently large capacity, the right number of Apple II computers without disk drives, and connected them through a local computer network. Each user of Apple II received through the network access to the hard drive and illusory became his sole owner.

In recent years, the trends of deep and comprehensive convergence, or convergence, of various types of telecommunications networks have emerged and are growing, due to the widespread use of computers and digital methods of information processing.

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