Conclusions - Informatics for the Humanities


The formation of information technology has been going on for several centuries as the accumulation of theoretical and practical knowledge and skills about the most productive technologies of working with information. Comprehensive definition of information technologies is presented in UNESCO documents, where information technologies are defined as a set of interrelated scientific, technological, engineering disciplines that study methods of effective labor organization for people engaged in processing and storing information, computer technology and methods of organizing and interacting with people and production equipment, their practical applications, as well as related social, economic and cultural problems. Information technologies that use electronic computers - computers, are called information and computer technologies, or ICT.

In its development, modern information technology has gone through several stages of development, each of which was dominated by some particular types and methods of processing information. At the moment, computer technology is used as the main means of working with information. In their development, electronic computers also underwent several evolutionary stages, each of which had its own technologically and technically conditioned features. The efficiency of working with the information of a modern computer is determined by the composition of its hardware and software. The latter consists of system software and application software packages. The basis of the system software of the computer is its operating system, interaction with which is carried out using a specialized interface - the software shell of the operating system. Most modern software shells use the concept of a graphical interface, the invention of which has allowed the widespread use of computer information processing tools.

At the heart of the computer is the concept of an algorithm that is used in computer language when creating computer programs and is the basis of all known modern programming languages. The type of software used in processing information and the type of computer file system determine the format of the computer file and its symbolic designation (file name and name extension).

A new stage in the development of information computer technologies is associated with the emergence and dissemination of computer networks, primarily the global Internet. A computer network is a collection of computers and various related electronic devices for which, with the help of special communication facilities, it is possible to directly exchange information in real time, which allows network users to form an arbitrarily large general information space. The basis of such a space is the concepts of network addressing and network protocol. The basic network protocol for data transmission on the Internet is the TCP/IP protocol, and the primary addressing system is domain addressing (DNS). Depending on a number of parameters, there are several types of classification of computer networks that determine their functionality and efficiency.

One of the negative aspects of the invention and dissemination of networked information technologies is the growing number of threats to information security for computer users. The main ways to protect against information threats are to provide structural, temporary, information and functional redundancy of computer resources and use of special software and/or hardware protection. The main software tools of this kind currently are specialized anti-virus software packages, or antivirus programs.

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