Corporate (integrated) integrated circuits
Each organization has different levels of management, on which specific information flows circulate. To process information, various information technologies are used, which are implemented with the help of appropriate information systems having their own names.
Corporate (integrated) information systems (KIS) in each organization can be described by management levels (Figure 8.2, a ), by basic functions (Figure 8.2 , b ) and processing operations (Figure 8.3).
Strategic Enterprise Information System (ESS) is designed to assist Top Managers in supporting strategic decision-making. ESS takes into account long-term changes taking place in the environment and business environment of the enterprise, integrating knowledge and data of all information systems of the enterprise and are formed, as a rule, on the basis of artificial intelligence systems (expert systems - ES). Their purpose is to reconcile changes in operating conditions with the existing organizational capability.
Fig. 8.2. Stratification by management levels ( a ) and basic functions (b) in the CIS
Fig. 8.3. IT Stratification by Operations
For the functioning of ESS it is necessary:
• Creation of a common information space and effective developed communication infrastructure;
• creation and introduction of new forms and methods of management on the basis of modern information technologies and the concept of quality management;
• a dramatic reduction in the time needed to pass the information required to make a decision;
• the introduction of a single standard for working with electronic documents, taking into account the existing regulatory framework and ensuring the security, manageability and accessibility of documents;
• Automating and increasing the efficiency of employees and units through the implementation of specialized applications and tools for supporting teamwork;
• Creation of an infrastructure for managing corporate industry knowledge.
Creating ESS allows you to solve a number of tasks:
• Ensure the required quality of enterprise management;
• improve the efficiency and effectiveness of interaction between units;
• improve the manageability of the quality of products;
• improve the economic efficiency of the enterprise;
• create a system of statistical accounting in the enterprise;
• carry out the forecast of the development of the enterprise;
• create a system of strategic and operational planning, a forecasting system.
Electronic Data Processing (EDP) is designed for the bookkeeping and operational management of business transactions, preparation of standard documents for the external environment (invoices, invoices, payment orders). The horizon of operational management of economic processes is from one to several days and realizes the registration and processing of events, for example, registration and monitoring of the fulfillment of orders, the arrival and consumption of material values in a warehouse, keeping a time sheet, etc. These tasks have an iterative, regular character, are carried out by direct executors of economic processes (workers, storekeepers, administrators, etc.) and are associated with the design and transfer of documents in accordance with well-defined algorithms. The results of performing business operations through the screen forms are entered into the database.
Management information systems (MIS) are focused on the tactical level of management: medium-term planning, analysis and organization of work for several weeks (months), for example, analysis and planning of supply, sales, production programs. For this class of problems are characterized by the regularity (periodic repeatability) of the formation of the resulting documents and a clearly defined algorithm for solving problems, in particular, the set of orders for the formation of a production program and the determination of the need for component parts and materials on the basis of product specifications. The solution of such tasks is intended for managers of various services of enterprises (departments of material and technical supply and sales, workshops, etc.). The tasks are solved on the basis of the accumulated database of operational data.
Decision Support System (DSS) is used mainly at the top level of management (management of firms, enterprises, organizations), which has a strategic long-term value for a year or several years. These tasks include the formation of strategic goals, planning for attracting resources, funding sources, choosing the location of enterprises, etc. Less often, the tasks of the DSSP class are decided at the tactical level, for example, when choosing suppliers or contracting with customers. The tasks of DSS are, as a rule, irregular.
For DSS tasks, there is a shortage of available information, its inconsistency and fuzziness, the prevalence of qualitative estimates of goals and constraints, weak formalizability of decision algorithms. As tools of generalization, the means of drawing up analytical reports of arbitrary form, methods of statistical analysis, expert estimates and systems, mathematical and simulation modeling are most often used. At the same time, databases of generalized information, information stores, knowledge bases about rules and models of decision-making are used.
The information system, which includes all three types of listed information systems, is called the strategic information system - SIS (ESS).
Depending on the scope of functions and levels of management, corporate (integrated) and local ISs are distinguished.
Corporate ( integrated ) information system ( CIS ) automates all management functions at all levels of management. Such a CIS is multi-user, operates in a distributed computer network.
Local Information System ( LIS ) automates individual management functions at individual management levels. Such LIS can be single-user, functioning in separate divisions of the management system.
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