Customer Relationship Management (CRM)
With the development of intrafirm relations, the processes of formation and development of IT, networked computer technologies, which already provide for establishing links with suppliers and consumers, are taking place. This stage is connected with the introduction of CRM-technologies (Customer Relationship Management - customer relationship management). This stage of development of management systems corresponds to the development of the concept of marketing interaction. At this stage, IT provides, in addition to traditional functions, the functions of exchanging information in the supplier-consumer network, conducting trades, forming a single supplier-consumer chain.
ERP and CRM systems have prepared an infrastructure for the development and improvement of the concept of marketing interaction (Figure 14.1), i.e. building a supplier-consumer network based on the use of information about demand (marketing-interactions).
Fig. 14.1. Improving the supplier-consumer chain based on ERP and CRM technologies by synchronizing the entire cycle time
The result of further informatization of the enterprise was the introduction of IT in such areas as marketing, R & D, the design of new products, services and technologies, finance, financial accounting, accounting, led to a reduction in the delivery of products to consumers, and processing, analyzing information for decision making, and reducing IT costs. The construction of consumer-consumer chains is the basis for building networks and organizing e-business, which significantly transformed the structure of the enterprise. The structure of the enterprise using IT based on ERP and CRM technologies is shown in Fig. 14.2. Automation of business processes of such units as marketing, production, supply and marketing, R & D, finance, personnel, as well as services of collective use, such as legal, recruiting, audit, etc., are reflected here.
Classification of CRM-systems can be carried out on several grounds. The most frequently used: for targeted use (operational, analytical, collaborative) (Table 14.1); by industry (banking, finance, pharmaceuticals, tourism, etc.); on the scale of enterprises, etc.
Fig. 14.2. Traditional IT based on ERP and CRM technologies
The development of the CRM concept led to the emergence of a number of areas, such as enterprise relationship management (ERM); Customer Asset Management (CAM); marketing automation - Marketing Automation (MA); management of technologically oriented relationships - Technology-Enabled Relationship Management (TERM). CRM systems are based on a sufficiently mature concept of individual marketing, which is based on the use of all available information about customers for the benefit of the company. This technology helps to target marketing to a specific customer and allows you to automate the processing of some external information flows and reduce transaction costs.
Classification of CRM systems for targeted use
Providing prompt access to information during contact with the client in the process of sales and service. Covers: marketing, sales and service
For small companies: ACT, GoldMine, Maximaizer, Sales Expert, КонСи- Marketing.
For Medium: Clientele, Onyx, SalesLogix.
For large: Oracle, SAP, Siebel, BAAN, "Business Process Management. Sail-Client
Joint analysis of data characterizing the activities of the client and the firm. Getting new knowledge, conclusions, recommendations, etc. Uses complex mathematical models to find statistical patterns and choose the most effective marketing strategy, sales, customer service
Brio, Business Objects, Broad-, E.Piphany, Hyperion, MicroStrategy, SAS, Marketing analytic
Provides direct involvement of the client in the activities of the company and the ability to influence the processes of product development, production, service
IntraNet Solutions, Plumtree, Symon, Vignette, Aspect, Broadvision, Cisco
Considering CRM as an enterprise strategy, we note several necessary conditions: the existence of a single store of information about customers; Synchronous control of multiple interaction channels; continuous analysis of the collected information.
The merits of the CRM system include: establishing close relationships with the client; more simplified sales process; the emergence and identification of new potential sources of income and the minimum preparatory period.
The CRM system allows to solve several tasks: to raise the level of mutual understanding with customers; increase profits per customer; increase the effectiveness of efforts to sell traditional goods and services for the company; Reduce overhead costs, as well as marketing and administration costs; expand the list of offered goods and services; raise your image in the eyes of customers. The CRM system contributes to the formation of a single information space for synchronization of the supplier-consumer business processes.
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