Data Transfer Protocol TCP-IP, FTP Protocol, World...

TCP/IP Data Transfer Protocol

The Internet, being a set of networks and computers, operates on the basis of a single data transfer protocol - Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol). TCP/IP is a pre-agreed standard for data transfer that allows data exchange between computers on the network, no matter on which platform these computers are operating and which data channels are between them.

The TCP transport protocol provides the partitioning of large amounts of data into parts (numbered packets) before sending and collecting data in a single package in accordance with the numbers on the destination computer at the end of the route. If during the data transfer some data was lost or corrupted, then the protocol asks to repeat the data transfer.

IP Routing Protocol provides the delivery of data from the destination computer to the destination computer. The created data packets using the TCP protocol are packaged & quot ;, and each of them specifies the IP addresses of the sender and the recipient, for example, "from - 193.85.200.45 and to - 196.147.165.98 & quot ;. The route and the time of passage through the communication channels for each packet are completely different. Data packets travel the route through various intermediate servers, where they are gradually routed and approaching the Internet network to the destination computer.

In Fig. Figure 6.10 shows a diagram of data transfer using the TCP/IP protocol.

For the Internet, special programs are used that are called browsers. Browsers (from browser - flipping, browsing) are programs with which the user interacts with web pages (scans information, copies information, uses built-in links, etc.). There are different versions of browsers, the most popular of which are represented by Microsoft - Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Opera, and Google - Chrome. Every

Transmission scheme using TCP/IP protocol

Fig. 6.10. Data transfer scheme using TCP/IP

the user configures the browser's user interface "for himself," using various toolbars - setting up autoloaded pages, setting up display and viewing information on web pages, creating a group of bookmarks, etc.

FTP protocol

Hundreds of thousands of Internet servers are servers of file archives, which store a huge amount of information of various types - programs, drivers for various devices, graphics and sound files, movies, etc. Files can be accessed on file server servers using both the HTTP protocol and the special FTP (File Transfer Protocol) protocol. This protocol allows not only download files to the user's computer from remote file archive servers, but also transfer files from the local computer to a remote web server.

There are various programs that simplify the work with file archives, the so-called download managers (Internet Download Manager, Flash Get, Fresh Download, etc.). These programs allow you to increase the speed of downloading information by splitting the files on a part and simultaneously downloading all the parts. These programs allow you to continue downloading files even if the connection is broken, are able to independently search for information on file servers, in addition, there is the possibility of archiving the file at boot time.

World Wide Web

World Wide Web (WWW) is a World Wide Web, a distributed system that provides information access to resources of interconnected computers. The World Wide Web is the most popular and dynamically developing system. The information document on the WWW is a web page that contains text, graphic, audio and video information, so the WWW gives you the opportunity to watch movies, listen to music, play computer network games, communicate in audio and video modes, etc. A set of thematically related Web pages linked together by a group of hyperlinks is called an website.

The information structure in the WWW is based on hypertext. Hypertext is the information structure in which the distributed hyperlink model is implemented using hyperlinks. A hyperlink is a link associated with an appropriate document on the network that discloses or complements the meaning of the hyperlink, i.e. when you click on it, this document is loaded, and it can be located on a neighboring computer or anywhere in the world. In addition to links implemented using text, there are links based on graphic images, because web pages are made out using multimedia elements - sound, graphics, animation, video.

Modern programs and web development applications are dynamically developing, which allows you to develop fairly interactive websites. With the help of the WWW you can conduct business negotiations; enter into a contract; pay bank accounts; to issue any purchase, pay for it; pay utility bills; conduct a public opinion poll; fill in the questionnaire hand over a session, etc.

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