3.5.2. Data Warehousing
Data warehouses of various sizes are used - from local solutions at the enterprise division level to multifunctional integrated business performance management (BPM) systems. As a result of the continuous increase in the volume of stored data, developers are forced to apply new efficient storage technologies. One of them is the intellectual processing of structured and unstructured data and their spacing in view of the demand. It is established that up to 80% of the data is of little demand or claimed once. For their storage and processing, high-speed devices are not required, they, for example, can be placed on tape media.
Data warehouses (CDs) or data marts for specific departments contain a narrow set of data and five to six metrics to solve the analytical tasks of one department. For example, it can only be customer data for sales managers or management balance indicators for a financial service. This method of snoring data allows you to quickly and easily provide the end-user with the information you need, but you can not reconcile the data in the windows for different departments.
Centralized data warehousing covers the tasks of analyzing and managing all organizational units. In this case, it is assumed that users work with a single source of information, in which the data from corporate accounting systems are structured and consolidated. The technology solves the problem of inconsistency of data used by different departments, the positive effect for business from a large-scale and costly project can only be obtained if it is properly organized.
The industry specialization of the software provides reduction of terms and reduction of implementation costs, and the initial transparency of the business model of the system increases the probability of the project's success. One of the main advantages of this approach is that a step-by-step implementation of the business model of the system is acceptable, which supports a number of management techniques. Thus, the customer can start with the solution of priority tasks, gradually investing in the development of the system. Users of banking software believe that the benefits of a data warehouse are only apparent when it helps solve one or more of the application problems that are relevant to the bank. Therefore, such a repository should work in the interests of business units and support the implementation of the bank's business strategy. The most demanded is the chain of functions implemented using the data store: "storage - processing - analysis".
Data processing involves calculating calculated indicators using specialized procedures for classifying and transforming data, allocations, adjustments, etc. Systems that implement these business functions based on HD are of the BPM class. They provide automation of a number of management technologies. As the necessary functionality of BPM-packages, the following composition of applications is allocated: planning or forecasting and budgeting, profitability management, financial and mandatory reporting, financial consolidation.
Depending on the division of organizations into small, medium and large businesses, their IT infrastructure also differs.
3.5.3. Innovative solutions for storage systems
Innovative solutions for storage systems include Dell Compellent, based on proactive intelligent data management. It combines the Fluid Data architecture, storage virtualization, intelligent software and a modular hardware structure. The Fluid Data architecture has built-in intelligent functions for dynamic overflow corporate data between different levels of storage.
Control is performed at the block level. Specific information about each of the blocks is collected while working with it and is used for dynamic storage, migration and data recovery. It contains information about the type of stored data, as well as the disks used for their placement (RAID 0 level), the recording time and the frequency of data access.
It is known that up to 80% of company information is used rarely or even once. Such information can be placed on non-fast storage devices, for example, on tape drives. The most popular and frequently used information is copied to solid-state disks with a high read/write speed.
Block-level data management allows Dell Compellante to use virtual disks for storage. A flexible storage pool will be created for all servers. They see storage resources as an available memory capacity with indication of disk types and storage level, as shown in Table. 3.1.
Table 3.1. Flexible resource storage pool
Multiple I/O requests are handled in parallel, since read/write operations are distributed across all disks. This increases the processing speed. The use of Thin Provisioning technology optimizes the use of disk memory. In this case, you do not need to have one application on one disk, you can place them several times and work with them quickly. This solution saves disk space.
The Automated Tierd Storage application dynamically classifies the data and moves it to the appropriate RAID snoring level. Instant snapshots provide data protection and quick recovery, and Thin Replication technology allows replication of data to remote sites. And thanks to the unified user interface, management is simplified.
This storage technology for corporate data is implemented by the Dell EqualLogic PS 6010 family of storage systems. The solutions in it offer increased performance through integration with a 10GBE (10GBE) controller and better storage for virtual servers due to integration with VM ware and Hyper V. In addition, the enterprise is managed through SAN Head Quarters v.2, an event monitoring tool. And after this family of storage systems merged with SAN networks, it acquired more performance, reliability, intelligent automation and full virtualization.
3.5.4. Storage area networks
Storage Network (SAN), or SAN (Storage Area Network), is a high-performance, high-speed (1, 2,4,8,10,16 and 20 Gbps) switched transmission network data. It combines enterprise servers and geographically distributed data stores - disk arrays, tape libraries, optical storage devices. The OS defines resources as local ones. The network architecture can be different:
- point-to-point (Fiber Canal, Point-to-Point, FC-P2P) when two devices are directly connected to each other;
- Arbitrated loop (FC-AL) when using the FC-AL interface for fiber optic channels with a ring topology. This architecture is similar to the architecture of the closed ring (token ring) in Ethernet technology. In it, failure, as well as adding or removing network components, cause a cycle break. An example of a cyclic scheme is shown in Fig. 3.3;
- The Switched Fabric (FC-SW) is similar to the star in Ethernet technology. All devices are connected to the FC switch. As a result, information flows between two ports pass only through the switch, and are not transferred to any other port. In Fig. 3.4 shows the SAN switch to which switched circuit nodes are connected.
Fig. 3.4. Connecting schema nodes to the switch
Most storage networks use the SCSI protocol for communication between servers and storage devices at the bus topology level. And since it is not designed to form network packets, low-level iSCSI and Fiber Channel Protocol (FCP) protocols are used in storage networks. The FCP protocol implements data transport but SCSI over Fiber Channel, and iSCSI - via SCSI through
TCP/IP. The Fiber Channel connection provides data exchange between network elements over distances of several meters to hundreds of kilometers. A storage network allows you to:
• reliably transfer data from servers to storage devices that are far away from them, with minimal performance degradation;
• Remotely store data, which increases the reliability of the system, the speed of backup and recovery of information from a previously created backup;
• connect to the system new servers and disk RAID arrays without stopping and interrupting the system;
• ensure the joint operation of used and newly purchased storage systems, rapidly change the scale of the information system;
• centrally manage a distributed information system.
Network Attached Storage (NAS) solves a similar problem. They provide access to the data stored on their file system using the network file system NFS, SMB/CIFS or AppleTalk. Currently there is a convergence of SAN and NAS technologies.
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