DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
After studying the material in this chapter, the student must:
• the purpose and scope of databases in philology;
• Types of data organization and their differences;
• ways users interact with databases;
• the most commonly used database types;
be able to
• Manage different sets of data;
• Use the existing database model to store your own data;
• perform the input, search, and output of the required data in the database management system;
• an understanding of the problems faced by philologists in the field of data organization, and ways to solve them;
• The idea of the organization of interaction with databases.
Introduction: why you need databases in linguistics and what tasks they need to solve
Philology has a huge amount of data. Since the subject of studying philology is the description and analysis of the language, one can consider it as a field of study of hundreds of utterances (oral and written) produced by billions of people over several millennia. These statements are made in thousands of languages, each containing hundreds of thousands of words, each of which can be used in dozens of word forms and meanings. The results of linguistic analysis reveal a wide variety of coding rules at all levels - sounds, words, phrases, texts. These rules are counted in thousands for each language. Many factors of language variations are studied, including geographic, gender, social, pathological and situational ones, which adds to this wealth research objects.
Given this huge amount of data, it's not surprising that many philologists try to use technical tools to manage data. The databases contain data sets in the field of phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, historical linguistics and dialectology, as well as in applied linguistics, such as lexicography and computer language instruction. They serve not only as storage for large amounts of data, but also facilitate access to them.
Technically, a database is defined as any structured data set. An old-fashioned file system, for example a library catalog, is a database. The cards are organized on a regular basis, each containing the author's name, the title of the book, the year and place of publication, and a pointer to the storage location of the book. Nowadays the term database (DB), usually refers to a digital database; but although digital databases have enormous advantages over file cabinets, the essence of the database has changed, it is still a structured representation of stored content. In addition, the database must ensure data consistency and eliminate redundancy. The elimination of redundant or duplicated data reduces the possibility of their inconsistency. For example, if you want to write a finite verb (in the main sentence) in the proposal database, the best solution is to write it directly, for example, "works", the preferred solution is to write an index with an infinitive ("work", 3 for 1 hour, etc.).
Almost all computer applications perform data management of some kind. The text editor program reads the document file, presents it to the user for editing, and writes the edited version; The computer game shows the sequence of encoded images and records the result achieved by the player in a file, etc. This approach is called a file-based model. It has serious shortcomings for complex, information-intensive applications that need to process large amounts of information in much more complicated ways. In this case, the file-based model leads to duplication of programming, errors and incompatibility at all levels. Software applications must understand the format of the files, provide simultaneous access to the same data, and somehow prevent unauthorized access to data.
The database model delegates data storage and management to a specialized structure called the "Database Management System"; (DBMS). Instead of directly accessing the disk, applications request data from the DBMS or send data to it for storage. All complex issues of storage, retrieval, updating and even access to data can be solved only once at the DBMS level.
The DBMS can function locally, on your computer, or as a remote service called via an Internet connection. External applications request data from the DBMS (by submitting an appropriate request describing what data is required) or transferring data to the DBMS for storage in the database. The DBMS must solve all data processing tasks with high performance (processing of simultaneous requests, access control, etc.). But the solution of these tasks is carried out in one module, which is programmed by experienced specialists, passed multiple checks, is constantly maintained and updated. The DBMS uses a very common data organization model, which can then be customized according to the needs of each project. A linguist can purchase such a DBMS (perhaps, Access or MySQL ) and use it to create and use a database with tailored to their specific needs.
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