Determining the nature of the Internet
By its structure and content, the Internet is a complex interweaving of social, technical and technological, cognitive and sociocultural dimensions, connections and interdependencies. We are interested in the Internet from the point of view of understanding the technology and technology of network information processes and their content.
As a social phenomenon and as an independent object of social relations, the Internet becomes the subject of legal science and the academic discipline of the information law.
What is the technological nature of the Internet and its signs? The difficulty is that there is no single definition in the literature on computer science.
Some authors note that the Internet is a global network for transmitting information in the form of data. Others write that the Internet is international networks and interconnection based on them. Probably, both are right.
The basic definition of the information and telecommunications network is given in art. 2 of the Law "About Information": "a technological system designed to transmit information on the lines of communication, accessed by means of computer technology."
The Internet as a system includes structurally complex elements of the network technological infrastructure - a network of lines and communication channels (telecommunications) and complex telecommunications equipment, special software designed for posting on the website, transferring and using data.
Telephone line (telecommunications) is the physical medium through which network information (data transfer) is transmitted between the terminal telecommunications equipment (terminals). Depending on the nature of the communication line, the principle of its construction, purpose and use distinguish lines of wire, fiber, radio, telephone, telegraph and computer communications.
The communication channel (data transfer) is part of the Internet and connects each pair of terminal devices (terminals).
Dial-up line (dial-up line) - a communication line, established only for the time of connection of the sending and receiving switching devices, organized in the telephone network with the help of modems (modulators) that convert an analog signal into a digital form (for processing by computer means) and vice versa.
In addition to modems, hub (a device for connecting several Internet workers to the Internet stations of a local area network) and a router (a device for communication between several networks and their interactions).
In addition, the organizational technological requirements, specially created for simultaneous data transfer, are included in the network technological infrastructure. These are the standard rules for the organization of receiving/transmitting and using data (TCP/IP protocols). The TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) defines the order of the data partitioning into discrete packets and controls their transmission (delivery) and integrity. IP (Inernet Protocol) describes the format of a packet of data transmitted on the network, as well as assigning and maintaining the addresses of network subscribers (21, 500).
A hierarchically distributed system for registering and identifying network computers (domain name sistem) also belongs to the organizational and technological elements. In the Internet there is a double value of the domain name (domain name) - digital and symbolic. The numerical value is determined by the combination of four sets of numbers (from 0 to 225), separated by a dot. Symbolic meaning is determined by the semantic combination of letters of the English alphabet, for example, usla.ru, yandex.ru or kremlin.ru.
Each computer on the Internet must have its own network address - the identifier in the data network, which determines when the telematic communication services provide the subscriber terminal or other means of communication included in the information system (clause 16, Art. 2 of the Law "About information").
The technological elements of the network infrastructure include a web browser - a special program designed to view the pages of the network. Such a program (for example, Internet Explorer) is installed on the computer of the network user.
In addition, the technological elements of the network technological infrastructure include the program for the integration of network documents, using special languages for creating and presenting, as well as searching and using documents logically related to each other by keywords and phrases, and enabling them to quickly search and view ( hypertext ). Such programs use, for example, HTML markup languages, XML, etc. Based on the principles of operation and use of these infrastructure elements, a modern system for creating and presenting information on the Internet (WWW - World Wide Web ). With this abbreviation are associated different names of Internet elements (web server, web portal, web site, web page, web client, etc. .).
Finally, the technological elements of the network infrastructure include portal (site, page) - an information and telecommunications system of organizational, technical, technological, linguistic means of presenting (disseminating) information in Internet network, as well as direct access to it by users by domain names and (or) by network addresses.
Portal (from lat. porta - gate) is a system of network hierarchically constructed information resources and technology for providing access to them using a special service, software. The portal (site) can be a creatively designed information graphic drawing that has individual features of the work. Based on a combination of all the named features (hierarchy of resources, technology of placement, presentation and use, and graphic design), a portal or site can be registered as an object of copyright protection.
Typically, a web portal from a website differs in a large amount of information in a variety of forms (text, graphics, video, speech, etc.), direct access and quick navigation, the availability of search services, provision of a group work of users, availability of cataloging, use of powerful telecommunication equipment and its support, as well as safe working conditions with all applications.
The Internet network is a global information and telecommunications technology system consisting of information (access) to the communication lines and information provided on the portal (site), accessed through organizational, software and computing facilities, as well as other elements of the network infrastructure.
Signs of the Internet are:
• hierarchically organized information arrays (information resources);
• a global network of international lines and communication channels;
• complex telecommunications equipment;
• computers (workstations, computers);
• organizational and technological infrastructure;
• Data representation and access systems (portals and sites).
Basic Internet Services
The most common service is information search using special search engines that provide their search services free of charge. Search technologies are based on the semantic principles of selecting the desired text specified by the user. Currently, the most used search engines in the United States segment of the Internet network are Yandex and Rambler. In recent years, these organizations have updated their search technology, so the user has opened new ways to select the right information.
One of the most famous Internet services is e-mail. This is one of the most common modern methods of sending e-mails (emails) electronically. With it, you can send a message to any part of the world with the speed of transmission of an electrical signal, that is almost instantaneously. To send messages by e-mail, you only need to register with one of the Internet services and receive an e-mail address.
The procedure for receiving e-mail messages is similar to regular correspondence "on demand": the letter sent to your address is stored on the provider's server and it can always be read even if you have lost your address space. When you restore the connection with the provider and have an access password, all messages will be transferred to your computer.
Currently, almost all organizations, including law enforcement agencies, have e-mail addresses.
For science and education, teleconference, technology has perhaps become the most important and effective way of communication. Technically, this method is quite simple. Participants in the dialogue should have at their disposal computers, web cameras and a dedicated communication channel. In the videoconference mode, it is possible to conduct scientific and training events with the participation of large audiences located at a distance from each other. This technology is being introduced today in large companies that have an extensive branch network. In the judicial activity, the process of introducing a remote method of organizing and conducting court hearings also began. For example, in the US Supreme Court, the US Supreme Arbitration Court, in many regional courts of general jurisdiction and territorial arbitration courts, this technology is used to review criminal cases in the cassation instance, as well as conduct communications sessions between judges in the arbitration courts.
Chats (chat room - - the conversation rooms service - a means of communication for many people) and forums. It's enough to type in the text on the keyboard and send it to the specified address or channel on the network so that your statement becomes available to anyone who joins this channel. This method can be considered a network analogue of direct communication or collective conversation over the phone.
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