Designing Web Applications
Web-technologies allow to develop both simple web-applications and complex information web-systems. For the successful development of such applications, you need to understand the overall process of software development (software): the main development activities that must be performed; how these actions are interrelated; what is the order of their implementation; what specialists should take part in this process [2, 8, 10].
Organization of web application development
The development process can be divided into a set of basic works with well-defined boundaries and meaning:
• An understanding of the problem;
• Solution planning;
• Plan execution;
• checking the accuracy of the result;
• refinement to remove possible errors or inaccuracies.
The main stages of developing local applications
In the process of developing any software, the following main activities can be distinguished:
• Definition of software requirements (requirements engineering): designed to understand the problem being solved.
• Design: is designed to plan a solution to the problem.
• Implementation: converting the plan into working code.
• Checking and assessing quality: is designed to detect coding errors (program code) or inconsistencies between certain requirements and their implementation.
• Deployment: giving users the ability to work with the created software.
• Support: is designed to track the running of the running system and keep it running.
• Development: is designed to improve the developed solution over time; providing new input for the development process in the form of new requirements.
Requirements engineering is designed to understand the required features and characteristics of the software being created. This analysis is aimed at determining the functional requirements (what functions the system should perform) and non-functional requirements (the quality of the proposed solution). Engineering requirements also involves identifying a common idea that is behind the system being developed; key stakeholders who require a new system, and the conditions under which the system will be used. The identified requirements are processed in order to create high-level models of this system, which abstracts from unnecessary details of the problem area in question.
Design is intended to describe a solution that must meet the functional requirements and performance requirements, as well as the constraints of the environment in which it will work. Previously collected requirements are refined and improved to meet possible technological limitations. Design includes actions such as:
• Designing a schema of data and classes.
• Component Design.
• Designing a graphical interface.
• Designing the architecture of the system.
Helps to better form the specific features of the system, such as structure, behavior, interaction, data and control flow. It allows to separate the areas of responsibility, the main principle of software engineering - solving the problem by dividing it into different subtasks - can help to cope with the complexity and achieve the required technical qualities, such as adaptability, simplicity of support, extensibility and multiple usability.
At the project implementation stage, the developed design solutions are converted into the appropriate program code (manually or using programming automation tools). Program libraries, different programming languages, different communication protocols and technical devices may be required.
Quality assessment and evaluation is usually performed in parallel with the implementation, since the correctness and reliability of the intermediate results, and not only the final product, is very important to guarantee the quality of the entire application . Quality is largely due to the following criteria:
• the evaluation of functionality, that is, the correctness of the behavior of the application relative to the specified functional requirements;
• Performance evaluation, t. With. the response time of the application response under normal conditions and at peak loads;
• an assessment of usability, that is, ease of use, communication effectiveness, and compliance with standards of use.
Deploying the application gives users the ability to use this application. Depending on the type of application, the deployment process may include:
• software installation on client computers;
• Installation of the central application and databases on the server;
• configuration of the intermediate communication software;
• Instructing and training future users, especially if an entirely new application is installed, and not a new version of an existing application.
Support for a deployed and running application means ensuring its working state, which is to guarantee its availability and reduce failures. It can include: periodic checking of log files; error reporting and cleanup of temporary files; error correction; installing patches.
Application development. The application is designed to solve real user problems. However, in connection with the development of the organization, the complexity of the tasks to be solved, the improvement of the user's understanding of the capabilities of this software is inevitably required to develop the created software. New user needs only appear after they have worked with the software for a while. After that, they begin to give their suggestions and comments. The appearance of new requirements may cause you to start the entire development process anew. Despite strict adherence to recommendations for the proper organization of the software development process, it is often only after the deployment and accumulation of some experience of users with the software that it becomes clear that some requirements have not been fully met and the application needs to be improved.
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