Development (adjustment) of the organizational structure of the enterprise (organization)
Analysis of approaches to designing (improving) organizational structures . The problem of improving organizational structures is one of the most difficult problems of the economy. It is especially complicated nowadays, when enterprises and organizations are undergoing significant changes in accordance with the new conditions of the country's economic condition. A constantly changing market situation requires regular adjustment of the organizational structure, for which the enterprise (organization) needs to have the appropriate methodology and automated means of its support.
Many studies have been devoted to the study of forms and methods of designing organizational structures. Their analysis shows that in principle when presenting organizational structures for enterprises of different volumes using different management principles, any of the forms of structures shown in Fig. 1.10. At the same time, as a rule, mixed forms and principles of management are used in the theory and practice of organizational structures of modern enterprises and organizations, for the characterization of which a corresponding terminology is introduced.
The initial organizational forms of control are linear (Figure 8.7, a) and functional (Figure 8.7, b), which correspond to a tree-like hierarchical structure (see Fig. 1.10, b) and the limiting case of a hierarchy with weak links (see Figure 1.10, c) or the matrix structure (Figure 1.10, g),
in which there are all relationships between elements of adjacent levels of the hierarchy (forming the axis of the matrix).
These correspondences determine the properties of the linear and functional structures, the first of which implements the principle of one-man management and unity of government (ensuring the effectiveness of operational management), and the second - was proposed as a means to improve the professional skills of management staff (which increases the effectiveness of their management decisions on management functions), but with its long existence, the specific interests of functional subdivisions th that may conflict with the interests of the enterprise as a whole.
At present, these initial forms of organizational structures are not used in its pure form.
The most common form is the combination of linear and functional management principles. Such structures are called linear-functional.
In such structures (Figure 8.8), a division of labor is adopted in which the linear links of management are endowed with the principles of one-man management and perform the functions of management, while the functional ones provide linear assistance, but their immediate impact on the underlying links is carried out only after the technical, economic and other types of policies and plans for the repair of premises, equipment, distribution of resources (financial, personnel, computer, etc.) on the directorate (scientific and technical council) of the enterprise (or organization) that is traced in Fig. 8.8 by the dotted line, i.e. weakened connection (whence the term hierarchy with weak links has occurred).
The principles of linear and functional management are used in any organizational structure. Linear management is built on the basis of the production structure of the enterprise (organization). Functional units provide a unified policy and centralization of management for the main integrated functions of the organization of the production process (technical and technological preparation of production, material and technical support of the production process, financial, personnel and other types of enterprise support). At the same time, relationships within functional units are also built by
linear principle (deputy director for the corresponding type of activity - department - office).
At the same time, the increase in the dynamism of changes in the external and internal conditions of the enterprise (organization) revealed shortcomings of linear functional structures, which are the main organizational form of management at most enterprises and non-industrial organizations. Such a structure provides efficient manage