Development and debugging of IPS, Examples of documentary information...

Development and debugging of IPS

When developing an IPS, the following steps are usually performed:

1) analysis of the set of documents representing the relevant scientific and technical area for which the IPS is created; choice of keywords (COP), characterizing the content of each document; CS are selected from the headers (or from annotations) of documents included in the information array (information base) of the IPS. Keywords - nouns or verbal nouns, taken in the singular and nominative cases adjectives, verbs in an indefinite form;

2) the formation of the dictionary words (the first stage of the development of information retrieval language); IPYA is the basis for the formation of AML, and in the subsequent POZ;

3) choose the system of document indexing; it is usually first selected for indexing in alphabetical order, and in the future, indexing by significance or using a statistical dictionary can be chosen;

4) the formation of the AML of each document using a dictionary; initially when choosing an indexing system in alphabetical order, words in the LOA are arranged alphabetically, in the future, during the debugging of the system, another way of indexing can be chosen.

Possibly free indexing, without a dictionary (Unitherm system); then there will be no point 2. When creating an information array in the structure of the record (a complex term - using the language of logical programming) include the document number, the name of the document, factual information (the date of its publication, the place of publication, the author, etc., from the nature of the information), the facet from the COP POS. The POS can be described separately, then the document number is included in it in addition to the COP.

5) a POS or a search requirement is generated; when using the IPY the stage is performed with its use;

6) IPS debugging, in the process of which the relevance of the issuance is evaluated, and several ways of increasing the relevance are investigated: the search algorithm and (or) CSS change, the indexing method (statistical, taking into account the significance of the COP for displaying the meaning of the document or request, weighting factors of CS in AML and POS), the development of IPN with the introduction of changes in the vocabulary by introducing classes of conditional equivalence, descriptors or another way of changing the vocabulary, introducing grammar.

The above methodology for the development and debugging of the IPS is presented in the form of a structural diagram in Fig. 6.10.

With the application of this technique, students perform laboratory work using the language of logic programming Turbo-Prolog.

IPS development and debugging methodology

Fig. 6.10. Methodology for the development and debugging of IPS

Examples of documentary information retrieval systems

The first documentary information retrieval systems (DIPS) were created with the help of office equipment, counting-perforating machines, using microfilming technology. In Table. 6.6 some examples of DIPS on diacyclic cards are given [14].

In the future, microfilm IPS developed in the direction of using continuous media - microfilm selectors (Repid Selector, MIRACODE, CRIS, Search-OK, Search-DV, etc.).

IPS using microfilming tools are currently used for registration of reports and dissertations (in VNTItsentre), in a number of large libraries, in industry CSTI for the implementation of the 2nd circuit of the IPS.

Table 6.6

DIPS examples on diacyclic maps



Creation time and customers

Brief description


The first model IPS Filmorex was created by the French doctor J. Saman in 1950 and further improved

The carrier of information in this IRS is a 35 x 60 mm diameter microcard that contains a zone for the AML and a zone for displaying one frame with a microimage of the document. As the Filmorex was improved, the microfilming settings and, correspondingly, the size of the diacromicrocard and the reduction in the number of documents were changed


It was created in 1953-1957. Eastman Kodak Co. (USA) by order of the US Air Force. Used by the Pentagon since 1957, then found application in other departments

The information carrier is a microcomputer card that contains, together with AMP, aerial photographs, drawings and other volumes up to 12 pages with a size of 22 x 36 cm and a number of frames of large size or with a smaller reduction ratio, which are documents stored in the IPS


Created by Magnovox Co. (USA) in 1960.

An electronic system for finding microcopies of documents at known addresses of their storage. The information carrier is positive 16 "x 16 mm diameter microcircuits. 32 mm. The capacity of a diacritical card is 2 pages of a 23x format document. 38 or 3 pages of 22 × format. 28. Diacomic cards are stored in numbered clips. It is possible to visually view microcards with the help of a reading device and the rapid production of a copy enlarged to the normal size. Search duration is less than one minute


Created by Magnovox Co. by order of the US Air Force in 1957

The information carrier is a magnetic map measuring 25.4 x 76.2 mm. Recording and reading of information is made at a speed of 90 thousand characters per second. Video magnetic cards are also used. The central unit of the system is a sorting device with four vacuum drums. The system developed in the direction of increasing the amount of stored information. Supplemented with auxiliary horizontal repositories. The work of the sorting plant can be controlled by a universal digital computer. The computer was used CDC 160 firm Control Data Corp. with the input of information from punched tapes and punch cards

Walnut ( walnut )

Created by International Business Machines Corp. commissioned by the CIA. Developments have been carried out since 1958. The first publication - 1961

The first circuit of the IPS is implemented on IBM-1410 computer with several external drives on magnetic disks. In the drives are written AML, microcopies of documents are stored in IBM-9603 ZUpastipa, which have a modular design. When you enter the documents, they are microfilmed onto a perforated film, and a punch card is inserted on them

A more detailed description of the IPS considered can be found in [14, p. 551-620].

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