Development of Geographic Information System

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

  1. GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM

A geographic information system really helps to create maps, integrate information, visualize cases, present powerful ideas and develop effective alternatives. GIS can be used in vast areas for the purpose of decision making. This technique used in many areas such as traffic measurement, asset management and weather forecasting. A geographic information system really helps to analyze large quantity of data within an individual database according to their location. GIS is employed for providing information about devastation and will take care of huge degree of data for vulnerability and hazard management.

GIS is well toned and successful tool that is applicable in disaster refinement and forecasting. Weather forecasts cover large regions and weather status may change every minute during the natural disaster. Weather forecasting, disaster management and warning are also major service provided by GIS. GPS is integration of software and hardware components which used in cell phones for tracking the positioning. GPS can be an very sturdy and easy to take care of. GPS is an real time setting information that provides highly correct geographic reference in dependent of their time and weather.

Spatial database stores a huge amount of space-related information such as maps, medical imaging data, pre-processed distant sensing data, and VLSI chip design data. Geospatial data is the info that relates to the geographic location of features that mainly required for GIS. Spatial data that show where the feature will there be and feature data provide information about the feature. The quantity of Geospatial data will be collected in catastrophe refinement and forecast system is also increasing exponentially. The intricacy of spatial database isthat it isn't possible to investigate and gather data completely.

1. 2 GEOGRAPHIC MAPS

Two dimensional visual representation of globe surface. The sizes of geographic items on the map smaller than size in reality. Google map isa free web mapping and location basedservice. Google service provider providesa free web APIfor using the Google map web interface. Interactive web mapping services and source of information management services have been unveiled as an expansion to a typical GIS system. Integration of web mapping service and geographic resource has recently seduced more attention. The providers manage and maintain all the assistance by API. Yahoo API services are free at present. However, many API services have only limited utilization. People want the services for consumption have to register their own details and purpose of usage. The registered users are permitted to include labels on the web page to ask the service providers and gain access to their service to assemble the reference of Geo-information. When the developer request exceeds for a few resources, the application form is clogged by companies which is put in waiting to be affirmed. Finally, it'll be approved.

People (programmers) are interested to use Yahoo map in their application have to apply for a Yahoo map key. After making use of the Google map key then developers can use or insert Yahoo map to their own application. Yahoo map provides control and options to work with mapping service according to user's request. Yahoo map service provider, have some regulations that contain to be satisfied by the developer as per the necessity of the application. The developers should provide the reason for map usage in their request and their professional details for keeping away from illegal utilization of the map.

  1. GEOMETRIC PROBLEM

Computational Geometry is one which explains the studies of data framework and algorithm for Geometric problems. Geometric Algorithm used to resolve Geometric Problems such as Range Searching, Point Location. Nearest Neighbor and Ray Tracing. Spatial data mining denotes the spatial relationships, extraction of knowledge, or other interesting habits that are not clearly stored in spatial data pieces. Spatial data are mainly necessary for GIS whose information is related to geographic locations. The quantity of spatial data that can be accumulated in such systems is also increasing exponentially. The complexness of the info within these databases means that it is extremely hard for humans completely to investigate the info being accumulated. Spatial data source is one of large database that manage multidimensional items such as lines, things etc.

Spatial partitioning is a step to specify, generate and stand for partitioned data. Spatial Data is partitioned predicated on spatial attribute. Spatial data is partitioned as tree and recursive subdivision of space. KD tree algorithm is used for spatial partitioning. The reason is to hierarchically decompose space into small number of cells, such that no two skin cells contain too many things. Fast way to gain access to any input object is by its position. Algorithm build kd tree by partitioning point placed recursively along different sizes. Space partitioning is the procedure of dividing an area into two or more disjoint subsets. Space- partitioning means that divide large regions into several small parts. Then your partitioning technique put on small regions recursively. These areas are organized into a tree called as spatial-partitioning tree.

Cluster analysis or clustering is the task of grouping a couple of objects, that things will be similar means they are in the same group or otherwise in different group. To build a hierarchy of clusters called hierarchical cluster research. Nearest Neighbor strategy is simple and efficient that predicated on the framework of data. Various techniques designed for handling the nearest neighbor problems. K-Nearest Neighbor is simple and fast technique handles large data samples that use the nearest neighbor rule. Ball Tree K-Nearest Neighbor offer with high dimensional data to boost quickness to find K-Nearest Neighbor to perform Geometric learning duties. Quad tree is partition the area into two sizes that means root node partitioned exactly into four children. Octree is data framework that partition space into three sizing space such as recursively subdivides space into eight octants. R Tree is one of spatial indexing approach that indexing multi dimensional information such as geographical coordinates that store geometric items and also used for spatial access methods. R+ Tree differ from R Tree that avoids overlapping of coordinates. R* Tree is robust and efficient approach used to structure geometric items.

1. 4 WETHER FORECASTING

Weather conditions have increased the demand for decision support systems to include true forecasts. Weather forecasts cover large parts and weather position may change every short while the success in human life to really know what will happen for unstable situations and events. weather forecasting and caution are also major service provided by GIS. The introduction of smart phones has resulted in the proliferation of a number of innovative data-driven mobile applications. One useful request is location based mostly mobile weather forecasting which gives minute-to-minute forecasts. After around to looking at temperatures, reading reviews, and seeing weather alerts roll in, that Weather offers the most straightforward approach to showing weather data by using an Android Smartphone. Though it sounds very complicated, it's all about how much weather you want and how often, which is pretty easy to determine. No two different people experience and appreciate weather the same manner, & most Android device owners have different styles of customizing their telephones. So picking just one Android weather application for everyone just isn't going to travel.

weather forecast and devastation refinement forecast is evaluated which involves weather related data such as temps, air pressure, rainfall, solar radiation, relative humidity, wind quickness, sea level pressure, ground level pressure and their location related latitude and longitude. A major part of cyclone devastation refinement and weather forecasting will be the severe weather notifications and advisories to individuals who severe or dangerous weather is expected.

1. 5 CYCLONE DISASTER

Natural disastersmakeextreme weather changes in globe surface that givelotsof deficits and problems to valuable goods, buildings, andthat result in death or injury to humans. Cyclone is one of natural catastrophe that makes the area of closed, circular fluid motion spinning in the same way as the planet earth. Cyclonic circulations usually appear in an large level that are devoted to low atmospheric pressured areas. Cyclone disaster could cause severe weather events and issues that create wind accelerate more than 200 kilometres/hour and sea waves up to a few metres. Cyclone devastation makes severe weather changes that damage property and disturb the daily lives. The main purpose of cyclone catastrophe refinement and forecast system is to monitor the changes and refine the complicated devastation occurrence as effectively as you possibly can.

Cyclone devastation refinement and forecast system have two aspects: Monitoring the problem and recording the real weather changes and any opportunity for the disaster such as a cyclone. Other is event prediction ofcycloneand causesof cyclone disaster. In this system, we 're going to determine any likelihood of cyclone and scheduled to any weather changes by real-time Geospatial data collection. In this technique, API services for collecting live data from companies such as Yahoo, yahoo are widely-used. The reference integration might use own API for integration of useful resources. Providers watch every Geospatialchangethrough satellite and gather weather data. To prevent the problems to forecasting the forthcoming disaster related updates frequently.

1. 6 FUZZY Reasoning BASED MODEL

Fuzzy Logic can mimics a person would make decisions about anything such as forecasting. Both expert knowledge and past data may be used to develop the forecasting system. Fuzzy Logic provides a simple way to arrive at a particular conclusion based after imprecise, loud or missing source information. It comes with an ability to clarify the results and it can be coupled with other technology such as neural systems to develop powerful systems. Fuzzy results depend on the initial data or the knowledge.

The fuzzy notion means place their range or ideals that may differ according to the conditions, rather than being fixed once and for all. Actually the fuzzy has semantics, however they defined as per the specs, including a definition of the conditions in which they are operationalized. The reasoning of fuzzy logic have only two worth that as true and phony values which may incomplete or ambiguous, Fuzzy logic in a position to process this situation and to provide approximate solution. To design this fuzzy system, that define the guideline that satisfied the rule that equals the range means that given as input and end result data. They collect data to make dataset based on their existing one to form the number that can make some rules. The fuzzy inference system can be defined in the five steps:

  • Fuzzifying Input
  • Applying Fuzzy Operators
  • Applying the Implication Process
  • Aggregating All Outputs
  • Defuzzifying

The aim of the work, is collecting geospatialdata and integrating the geographic source of information and then passed to the algorithm of nearest neighbor change in places are found and the environment will imagine it on Android Smartphone via Google map. The Google map is type to the system. This work is structured the following. Section 2 provides review of past work onthe weather data collection, Algorithm for findingnearest friends and neighbors, Natural disaster ranking and forecasting. Section 3 describes the problem assertion of the existing work. Section 4 and 5 elaborates proposed methods and evaluation and the talk about screening our work is known in Section 6. Section 7 presents implementations and conclusions of the work is noted in section 8.

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