Development of a methodology for the design of enterprise AIS
For sufficiently large enterprises in accordance with the industry-wide guidance methodological materials for the establishment of automated control systems, the order of developing the automated control system, shown in Fig. 5.1 and 5.2. The methods of forming the structures of the functional and providing parts of the automated control system, similar to those described above, were developed.
However, in the following practice, the practice showed that the principle of unity of IT, TO and ORGOs as the main types of security adopted in the method of justifying the providing part of the automated control system is important in the development of the first stage of the ACS, when decisions are made on the choice of hardware and organizational support structure .
The following lines are developed in the conditions of the selected technical means and the development of the technical base is carried out taking into account compatibility with existing ones, and the main task is the formation of the structure of information support.
Therefore, in the methodology for developing the structure of FP and VC for an enterprise (organization), two stages are envisaged.
1. Development (development) of the structure of the functional part of the automated control system.
In this phase, the structure of the organization's goals and functions is developed (node-stage 1.1), the components of this structure (sub-step 1.2) are evaluated using expert and indirect quantitative assessments and This is the basis for determining the composition of subsystems and tasks that are to be automated first of all, i.e. formation of the structure of the AIS FC.
2. Determination of the composition of information arrays necessary for the implementation of the subsystems and tasks of the AIS FC.
This task, as a rule, can be performed by specifying a set of information arrays (taking into account already created ones) and comparing them with the subsystems and tasks of the AIS FC, determining the importance of arrays for the implementation of these tasks and functions that are not provided with information, and supplementing the array of arrays is new.
An example of the technique is shown in Fig. 5.18.
Fig. 5.18. Structure of Information System Design Methodology
In the implementation of sub-step 1.1, methods for structuring the objectives of management systems and automated dialog procedures for analyzing goals and functions are applied.
In sub-step 1.2, when evaluating the structure of goals and functions by identifying the most significant components, expert estimates and indirect quantitative estimates are used in parallel and then processed together.
In peer review, a criteria system is used as criteria, similar to the one adopted in the PATTERN methodology, but with some modifications; it offers the following groups of criteria: relative importance (importance), interconnectedness, economic evaluation (the latter replaces the group of criteria state-term ). The idea of indirect quantitative assessments is proposed in a methodology based on the concept of activity discussed in paragraph 5.2. There are also examples of such assessments (the number of units performing this function, the number of documents prepared for the function, the frequency of access to the function and information arrays, etc.) and it is recommended to apply the structurization feature "space for initiating goals and factors" when determining them; i.e. take into account the requirements and needs of the supersystem, reflected in legislative acts and policy documents, similar enterprises of the current environment, the interests of the subordinate units, the initiatives of the structural units of the management system proper, and when processing the evaluation results, not only traditional methods of averaging are applied, but also the identification of conflicting opinions followed by a meaningful analysis of these estimates, and to use graphical representations in the form of histograms to compare the estimates.
When sub-stage 1.3 is performed on the basis of the results of the assessment, the original structure is corrected, and the components that received the least significance estimates in comparison with others and did not receive high connectivity estimates with high-valued ones are either excluded from the structure of the FT or lowered to the lower levels of the hierarchy and, on the contrary, the components that have received high ratings of significance can be transferred to higher levels of the hierarchical structure. With such an adjustment, degenerate branches may arise, different versions of the new structure of goals and functions. In the latter case, go to sub-step 1.1 and repeat the formation and evaluation of the structure of the CF.
On the basis of this analysis, a structure of the FH is formed, in which the components of the first top-level structuring were originally called subsystems, the next - groups of tasks or tasks. Later, as the ACS developed, the names changed, and, if necessary, multi-level FC structures were formed (analogous to the structure of the AFC ASU VAZ). But for small and medium-sized enterprises, the representation of the structure of the FC was usually preserved in the form of a tree-like hierarchical structure.
In the development of information support (stage 2), arrays that provide information for the production process, material and technical supplies and similar arrays of factual information and arrays of scientific and technical information can be in the aggregate of arrays. After the final composition of the arrays is determined, a structure of information support is developed, i.e. the structure of input, archival, information retrieval arrays, interrelations between arrays, etc. is determined.
The principles of building and the effectiveness of automated control systems depend significantly on the level of development of information technology. With the advent of the mid-1970's. Personal computers are correcting the idea of ACS: from the CC and centralization of control to distributed computing resources and decentralization of management. To provide information on groups of basic functions of organizational management, enterprises are currently purchasing ready-made software products that often have a large number of functionalities and are complex enough complexes, usually called specialized information systems.
A variant of the methodology for selecting ready-made software products (specialized IS) is given in the next paragraph.
Particularly relevant is the choice of ready-made software products for small and medium-sized businesses that do not have the means to carry out their own software development efforts and to create the necessary information arrays.