Documentary analysis - Databases: design

Document Analysis

The implementation of the database and its preliminary modeling can not be done without analyzing the documents participating in the domain activity, which was reflected in the previous sections, when the analysis of business processes and functions was carried out. Consideration of these documents made it possible to identify a number of informational objects of the subject domain involved in the implementation of functions and tasks, and also to select attributes from them whose values ​​can be formed in the course of performing the corresponding functions and tasks.

Until now, a process-oriented approach to the analysis of the domain and its information component has been considered, preparing information on the necessary information structures, giving basic information about the future presentation of the database.

A process-oriented approach is understood as the technology of considering the domain and its components in terms of highlighting and detailing the processes being implemented, designating information objects as elements that ensure efficient work with data.

Documentary analysis, while it is used in a process-oriented approach, is a tool of another approach to the analysis of the subject area - information-oriented. Such an analysis does not provide an understanding of the processes performed in the subject area, but it makes it possible to distinguish the document flow system and the tasks of processing documents in the part of filling them with information and movement between interested employees of the domain.

An information-oriented approach is understood as the process of analyzing information objects of the domain, to which, first of all, documents refer to which attributes are considered sources of information about the subject area and the rules of information movement within the organizational structure of the organization whose activity is being studied.

This separation in the domain analysis approach often leads to the implementation of various types of information systems that process data. Thus, in the process-oriented approach, an information system is implemented, where the user's activity is built on the principle of executing business process operations, and documents that participate in business processes are either reporting forms, or intermediate information elements, or initial information that can not be obtained from the database.

At the same time, with the information-oriented approach, the constructed information system will focus on operations for filling electronic documents with data and defining rules for auxiliary content based on previously formed documents. Thus, the information-oriented approach leads to the emergence of an electronic document management system as a full-fledged implementation or a system of documentary data storage that forms an archive of documents.

It is impossible to say that one approach is better than another, because they have different targets and the implementation of the information system may well be justified in both cases. However, in the information-oriented approach there is one undeniable advantage over the process-oriented approach - it is the possibility of a detailed consideration of the movement of documents between the elements of the ordered structure of the organization, which in the framework of the process-oriented approach is not explicitly presented, although it can be identified on the basis of information about business processes, functions, implementing their departments and employees, and information objects, which are known, they are documents in the subject area.

The information-centric approach focuses on the domain of the document as a source of information about the structure of the data being processed. Thus, the documentary analysis of the subject area, from the point of view of the information-oriented approach, involves the definition of several models of working with documents:

• movement of documents between departments (document circulation), which is based on knowledge of the organizational structure of the company and the allocation of owners, responsible, creators and users of documents;

• sequence of documents interaction, where the process of transferring data from one document to another is determined from the moment of the origin of the source document based on information from the domain that are not available in the information system, until the completion of the filling of information from the last document that completes the logical chain of document processing, which is expressed, as a rule, the output of the document to the external environment beyond the domain.

The document interaction sequence model partially shapes the work process of the organization's employees, but illustrates

not so much running business processes, as the task of making relevant documents into separate attributes in documents.

Using an information-oriented approach, along with process-oriented, as an auxiliary tool for analyzing the domain, is very useful, because it significantly clarifies some functional tasks of the organization's employees, determines the movement of documents and information objects of the domain, and also allows one more time check the correctness of the previously described structures of information objects and, if necessary, refine them by adding new attributes, or correct the very filling of information domain processes by information objects.

To build a workflow model, you must first understand the organizational structure of the company and, perhaps, identify the functional roles of employees in the context of working with documents.

The role in the organizational structure is understood as the logically finished functional activity of an employee or division aimed at solving a business problem or managing the work with documents.

Here we must understand that the role of working with documents should be determined precisely by the full management of the documents allocated, which is expressed not only and not so much in the filling of documents with information, as in the organization of document movement between departments and the definition of rules for its use. That is, the role of working with documents determines that the relevant employee or department is the owner of the document and manage the work with it. This allocation of roles is inherent in the information-oriented approach, rather than for the process-oriented approach, which is explained by the point of view of considering the domain.

As a result of the analysis of the organization, the structure is distinguished in the form of interrelations between departments and employees, their subordination and a model of the organizational structure is formed (Figure 2.32). At the initial stage of the analysis, the organizational structure will contain only the elements Subdivision and Employee & quot ;, since documents are not yet being discussed, but later, when information about the movement of documents appears, the model of the organizational structure will be expanded with the elements "Role".

The presented example of the organizational structure shows that in the e-store in question there are four main structural units that are responsible for the corresponding functions:

- the sales department provides management of the sale of goods and services, providing communication with customers (customers);

- the financial department deals with issues of financial support for purchases, obtaining financial resources from customers (customers)

the warehouse realizes the tasks of placing goods in the warehouse premises and controlling the receipt and delivery of goods;

- the purchasing department ensures planning of purchases of goods in accordance with information about the needs of customers.


Fig. 2.32. Organizational structure of the electronic store



Some units include a number of support units, highlighting individual functions, taking into account the specifics of their implementation and the requirements of legislation and internal regulations. Also each division is represented by the head (for example: the head of the sales department, etc.) and the executors of the functions of the division. It is these resources (employees) that will perform the functional roles that support the formation and movement of documents, as well as the processing of data from the database.

Highlighting the organizational structure, and in particular of the organization's employees with their functional roles, in view of the current structure of the database, which includes not only data structures and processing procedures, but also users with access roles to database objects, is an important part of database development, and especially in terms of working with documents, because understanding the availability and functions of processing these documents will allow the developer to accurately identify the rules by which each user of the information system will be mutually eystvovat database.

Now that the organizational structure is known and the functional characteristics of each department and staff are determined, you can proceed to the examination of the direct workflow. The first presentation of the document flow, in the interests of further implementation of the database, reflects the movement of documents between the units. Moreover, this presentation does not reflect the sequence of creation and movement of documents, but reflects only the movement of documents from the source to the recipient. Such a reflection of the document flow is conditioned by the fact that, firstly, the process of working with documents in the form of business processes and auxiliary processing of information objects was considered earlier, and secondly, the essence of the workflow model in the present view reflects the availability of documents to individual departments and participants of processes domain. This will allow to formulate requirements for the form of availability of data, documents and processing procedures in the context of individual users and their roles.

Different workflow models are called documenograms. One such workflow model is a diagram that reflects the movement of documents between organizational units. This model allows the developer to see and evaluate the number of documents processed by individual departments of the organization and determine the availability of both the documents themselves and the processing procedures and individual information elements (attributes and records) to users of the information system, which will be reflected in the database when organizing the system information security level DBMS.

The basic principle of constructing such a document (workflow model) determines that the units in the model are units and, if necessary, certain categories of employees (Figure 2.33). On the other hand, the documents in the documen- tary are moved in the direction indicated by the corresponding arrow.

Fig. 233. Example document flow of documents


Documentograms can be large enough, especially when it comes to a large list of documents that are moved between departments. In this regard, they are often formed for the implementation of individual business processes, and possibly for business functions. As a result, the developer gets a visual model of what documents and what units work. Especially it is necessary to note the presence in the documenment of the "Information system" element, which can be divided into separate modules, if necessary to refine the model. Typically, in docs, items such as the Information system are not used because they are not both suppliers and consumers of documents, but when it comes to implementing a system where the information system is a party to the process, its appearance in the document is justified.

In this example, the Information System independently, without the participation of organizational units, forms a catalog of goods for the client. Of course, earlier this catalog of goods was created by the relevant structural subdivisions of the organization, but since the solution being developed does not involve work on automating such a task of these units, we consider that the catalog of goods already exists and is periodically adjusted, but the units that are engaged in its adjustment with the customer directly do not interact. In this case, you can say that the document Product Catalog for the client forms the module of the information system responsible for providing the list of goods on the specified parameters, which can be represented, for example, by the search subsystem.

As a result of the formation of the document, an understanding of the basic functions of working with documents is formed. So, for example, when a document in a documen- togram arrives at the entrance of a structural unit or an employee, this can be considered as an operation for reading and using the document. If the document in the documenogram leaves the structural subdivision of the organization, it determines the operation of creating the document with the introduction of basic or complete information. If the document passes through the structural unit, i.e. arrives at the input and moves further through the output stream, then the operations "Negotiation", "Approval", "Correction", "Filling", "Transportation" are possible here. etc. Depending on what functions of working with documents the developers are trying to reflect in the formation of the document, different versions of the interpretation of the processes of working with documents are possible. Since it is rather difficult to reflect these processes on the document, for this purpose, Organograms (Figure 2.34) are used, where not only the work of subdivisions with documents is illustrated, but operations performed on documents are also reflected.

Fig. 2.34. An example of an organic work with documents


The following designations can be used in this Organogram: • P - the birth of a document when the primary data form is entered in the document form or is formed from another document;

• And - use of the document, where no operations are performed with the document, except reading and, possibly, printing into a hard copy;

• C - agreement of the document when the employee of the organization checks the correctness of filling the document and the possibility of its use for further operations;

• Y - approval of the document when the head of a department or organization attaches legal effect to the document for its subsequent use as a regulatory and guideline document;

• H - filling out the document, where the participant of the process adds additional information to the document;

• X - storage of the document, where the task of accumulating completed documents in the archive is considered;

• T - transportation of the document, where the participant of the process of working with the document does not perform any actions with it, but ensures its transfer to another participant of the business processes.

Thus, the organicogram essentially clarifies the document, giving more detailed information to the database developer on the use of individual functions when working with documents (report forms) and information that they contain. But the documenograms and organicograms do not give all the completeness of information about working with data in documents, which requires the formation of another element of document analysis, called the table of availability of document elements (Table 2.6).

Table 2.6

Document availability

No. п/п







Information System


On Demand







- -

D & C hp

- "-



Sales Department

h and












This table will give an opportunity to see the form of working with the document and with its data of individual members of the information system. Expansion of this table is possible in the part of specifying specific types of users associated with employees of the organization, and highlighting the roles of users with their simultaneous indication at the level of the organizational structure. Such a process will allow, when considering information security issues of the database, to define clear schemes for users to access data, procedures, views, tables and other objects. To describe the availability of documents and their elements, the following access operations are used:

• F - the formation of a document presented in the form of reading information from other sources (document, database, information system);

• D - adding data, which involves adding new records to the document using interface input forms;

• And - change the data that provides input through the interface input means instead of existing information;

• Y - delete existing data;

• Ч - reading data or the document as a whole;

• P - the ability to output a document to the printer in its printed form.

Dropping deeper into the documents, database developers analyze their structural composition. Such an analysis allows us to highlight the attributive composition of documents and information objects presented in these documents (Figure 2.3 * 5).

Consideration of the document allows you to select the main groups of attributes that are present in it: "Order", "Sales organization", "Customer-Buyer", "Goods". This can be done based on the structure of the document and the understanding of the relationship of individual attributes to one or another information object. So, for example, the table with the list of goods is distinguished by an independent design in the document, structured and allows to draw a conclusion about the independence of this information object. Nevertheless, after reviewing the table of goods, you can see the final line, which reflects the total cost of the ordered goods, which relates not to every commodity item in the document, but to the entire order and this parameter of the document should be separated from the table and taken into account in the analysis of information object Order & quot ;. It is important to understand that such an analysis is rather laborious and requires in the process of reviewing the document to immediately allocate information objects, defining their attributive content.

As a rule, in structured documents, which are the majority in information systems, the ego can be made easily enough by selecting, at least, the basic groups of attributes and combining them into information objects. But, when it comes to unstructured documents (statements, orders, orders, etc.), the proper allocation of information objects and their attributive composition often becomes an insoluble task. Therefore, documentary analysis sometimes resorts to a simplified method, when attributes are allocated without reference to information objects, and grouping them is performed in the process of modeling the logical model of the database, discarding some of the attributes as unnecessary, and part of the attributes, using normalization rules, are combined into information logical structures . To conduct such work, the developers form a special table for describing the attributes of documents (Table 2.7).

Fig. 2.35. Example document Customer order


Table 2.7

Example of describing document attributes








1. Sales order (D1)


Order number


The serial number of the document "Customer order", represented by an encoded number containing three components, separated by a "-" symbol: order type (K - customer order), order number within a year (consists of 4 digits with leading zeros), the year of ordering


Date of issue


The date when the order was finally issued and handed over to the store manager. After making an order, making any changes is inadmissible





Name of the organization in which the sales order was issued












Address (organization)


A set of elements of the organization's geographical positioning. It is represented by a separated sign , elements: index, city, street, house number, building number, building number




11 number in order


The order number in the table of the goods selected in the order. It is only for the document.










The calculated value of the value of a particular item item in a sales order, based on multiplying the quantity of the purchased product by the unit price






In this description of the attributive composition, the developer is obliged to give an explanation in the column "Description" the essence of the attribute in question and the specifics of its use. Along with this, in the column Algorithm shows the formula by which the calculation of the corresponding value is performed, making it possible, when implementing the database, to correctly determine the calculation rule: calculated table zero, sample request with calculation, etc.

To be able to create formulas correctly, because you often need to access different information objects or documents for calculation, the numbering of attributes is grouped within each individual document, using the numbering and its application in the encoding of documents, as shown in the line with the document title.

As a rule, documents used in the subject area, almost completely contain information about the structures of objects, their names and classifications. To do this, in the table headers, if the document is represented by a tabular structure, the lowest level represents the attribute of the object, the next level when looking at the top rows of the table caps is the domain object, and the subsequent levels are the object classes.

If the document is presented in free form, where the object structures are not clearly marked, then the selection of objects is made based on the analysis of the natural language, using the nouns as their identification.

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