Concept and types of economic information
Any information technology in objects of organizational-economic type is a set of interconnected information processes. Each of the processes in the queue contains a certain set of operations implemented by some other means. The task of technology is to obtain from a source information resource a qualitatively new information product on the basis of which an informed management decision can be made. As the information resource is processed (transformed), it is necessary to know its types and quality characteristics. Organizational, economic or business activities are associated with a special product called economic information.
Economic information as a conceptual category by its nature, on the one hand, corresponds to the concept information & quot ;, and on the other hand reflects the features of its functioning environment, i.e., . economy.
Most often, this term refers to a transformed and processed set of information that reflects the state and course of economic processes. In a more formalized definition, economic information is understood as an objectified implementation of knowledge about economic relations and the processes of reproduction of material, labor and value resources and services expected or implemented in practice and eliminating uncertainty about the outcome of these processes and services. strong>
However, economic information not only reproduces the state and direction of development of economic objects and industries, but also reveals the mechanism of interrelations between their links. Thus, economic information is a set of information used for planning, accounting, control, regulation in the management of business objects. Because economic information provides a solution to business management tasks in objects of different types and hierarchies, it acts as a kind of management information. In information processes, it plays a twofold role: as an object of labor (originated initially) and as a product of labor (processed and usable). Hence, when considering economic information from cybernetic positions, it can be concluded that it is an increment in the initial information into a user product used to make decisions aimed at securing a given state of a business object and its optimal development.
Economic information does not arise by itself. It necessarily has its own source and its consumer. It can be seen, heard, received, read, transmitted, recorded and stored, altered and destroyed. These properties of economic information can be attributed to a special category of material objects and considered as a specific element of information and communication management systems. As a special property of matter, economic information can not exist without its carrier and the means of moving it in time and space. The information carrier can be not only the material object itself, which is directly physically observable, but also its image in the form of light, sound, magnetic, electrical, or other kinds of signals and states.
Economic information as a special element of management systems can be considered (classified) from a variety of sides.
First of all, it is divided into by the nature of belonging to the sphere of material production and to the non-productive sphere, and inside - by industries and sub-sectors business entities. By the time stages, i.e. management functions, forecast, planned, accounting, statistical, analytical information is allocated. The kind of management solution that is being prepared allows you to classify economic information into strategic, tactical and information operational management.
Important criteria for the classification of economic information are compliance with its reflected processes and conditions ( credible and unreliable ) , as well as the completeness of the event's reflection ( sufficient, insufficient, redundant ) .
The content of information circulating in different objects depends on its industry and management level. Nevertheless, in the process of processing, information passes through the stages common to the management of different economic objects. A generalized simplified scheme of processing, reflecting the purpose of information and the sources of its occurrence, is shown in Fig. 1.3.
Fig. 1.3. The scheme of the movement of economic information in management
Concerning the technology of solving economic problems in control systems, distinguish input, intermediate and output information.
From the system management positions, the input information (1) enters the control from the outside, from where it is transferred to the control object in the form of control information (3). However, for the development of management decisions in the technological subsystem, the input information is considered to be primary information that results from direct measurement or counting. For objects of industrial production - this is the volume of output, the number of workers, downtime, stocks in the warehouse, etc., for banks and financial companies - interest rates, volumes of assets and liabilities, loans and deposits, effective payment rates for them and t . Primary information is most closely associated with a specific aspect of the activity of managed economic entities, including both slowly varying (conditionally constant) and operational (variable) data. The peculiarity of the primary information lies in the fact that it, as a rule, contains the volumetric characteristics of the objects. These volumetric characteristics, which are then processed in conjunction with the reference data, provide a detailed assessment of the actual state and dynamics of the controlled object. From the point of view of the management process, the processed information serves as the feedback (4) coming from the controlled object and showing the results achieved, as well as deviations from the normative functioning of the object (5). The rest of the input information - it is sometimes called external - is conditionally divided into directive and informative and comes from third-party objects in relation to the control system. Directory information comes from the parent bodies and, depending on the nature of the subordination, can include parameters and conditions for the formation of economic obligations, planned targets and their adjustments, and the allocated limits. Informative information comes from higher authorities, as well as from suppliers, contractors, transport organizations, banks, pension funds, insurance companies, local authorities in one way or another related to the object of management . If the directive data directly affects the objectives of the operation of the facility, the informers (2) determine the conditions of its operation and for flexible decision-making must be transferred in time to the governing body of the system. Directive and informative data, in contrast to primary data, are mostly cost or dimensionless.
According to the stability of the change in time, the variable, conditionally constant and constant are extracted. To conditionally-constant information, first of all, technological, material and labor standards, calculated coefficients, catalogs, nomenclatural directories are referred to. The criterion of information stability is important in the organization of independent arrays and databases within the framework of economic data processing systems.
Reference information, like the input, is the source material for further processing. It is used many times and after initial input for a long time is stored in the control system. The most typical operations when processing it are sampling data from the corresponding arrays and updating them. When creating information systems, the specifics of storing, updating, and using normative reference information cause its allocation along with search and update facilities into a separate subsystem. From the reference and input information, the result is a variety of derivative information. Methods of information processing can be very different: from simple transmission, aggregation and grouping to complex economic calculations. Derived information obtained as a result of such calculations reflects more complex economic characteristics of production: the cost of different types of products, labor productivity, profitability.
To compare the characteristics of the current work of an object with directive tasks, a part of the derived information is expressed in the same indicators as the directives. However, derived information is much broader in composition and form of presentation than input and output, because it reflects the diversity of information used and the complexity of its processing. In many ways, it depends on the type of economic and mathematical models that are used to organize management processes. Obtaining derived information is the purpose of the processing and determines the choice of the appropriate methods.
In the management process and information conversion processes, accounting, forecast and planned are highlighted. Accounting information is correlated with the actual production process and its specific economic conditions. It includes both primary information and part of the derivative - data on the actual output of products by cost, nomenclature and quality, on resource costs, losses, inventories, use of equipment, accrued wages, tax and bonus payments, etc. They are obtained from primary data using existing regulations, tariffs, prices, rates and other types of regulatory information. Specificity of accounting as a management function determines the specifics of processing accounting information and the need for its primary automation. Accounting information describes already accomplished processes, really existing conditions. It is definite and does not depend on subsequent actions or decisions. In contrast, the forecast and planned information can be adjusted when conditions or objectives change. Calculations of accounting and plan data form in some sense counter flows. In the process of calculations, credentials are grouped, aggregated, and go from physical indicators to value indicators, and planned data, on the contrary, from value and aggregated natural indicators to detailed data of technical training and production support. Accounting and planning information is the basis of the entire management process, including regulation, analysis, forecasting and other functions. For example, the company's performance is obtained by direct comparison of the relevant accounting and plan data. Along with the normative reference, accounting and planning information turns out to be internal for management bodies and when creating information systems should be stored in its information base. It is carried out by the most complex types of processing, providing a solution to management problems.
The final result of the processing can be considered the receipt of output data. Weekend they are called because they imply management (or control) of higher (external) bodies. Usually the data is not physically removed, but is involved in subsequent processing cycles. Some of them go to the control object, and some - to the higher authorities and other units. The information arriving at the control object has the necessary effects and thus influences its further operation. This information is usually generated with the participation of a person, is determined in the decision-making process, and therefore it is called manager. Data on economic incentive funds, indicators of the volume and structure of investments, etc. can serve as an example. Information coming to higher bodies is less voluminous than primary, it has the nature of reporting and should be issued in the forms established by statistical, tax and other forms of government. The division of the output information into the control and reporting information is relatively arbitrary, since it can contain the same data. Weekends also include data coming to other departments and being for them to be aware.
Economic information as a material category has a number of properties. One of them is the property of adequacy. Adequacy of information, or the correspondence of the created information image to a real object - this is its property, which primarily interests the consumer of information. This property can be expressed in three forms: syntactical, semantic and pragmatic.
Syntactic adequacy characterizes the reproduction of formal-structural parameters of reflection and does not take into account the semantic and utility parameters of the object or process. This level takes into account the speed of processing and transmission of information, the type of media and the way information is presented on the medium, the reliability of the codes used.
Semantic adequacy expresses the degree of correspondence between the image of the object and the object itself. It is this level that implies the design of the structural composition of documents, the development of the logical structure of the database, the creation of a classification system and coding, etc.
A pragmatic, consumer adekvatyost reflects the relationship between information and its consumer, the correspondence of information to management tasks that are implemented on its basis. Pragmatic properties of information are manifested when it corresponds to the interests of the user and management objectives.
The following properties of economic information are of fundamental importance for the design and implementation of information technologies for solving management problems:
• advantageous alphanumeric representation when describing it;
• a significant amount of variables and persistent data used to solve the problems of economic management;
• Discreteness, because economic information characterizes the state of an object or process at a certain point or for a certain time interval;
• finding sources of information in different places and the inability to concentrate them to centralize the collection and recording of data;
• Retentivity when processing at various technological stages;
• the ability to reuse the same data, even simultaneously at different consumers;
• Persistence of the sender when transmitting it, including through communication channels
• Ability to aggregate by different grouping characteristics, to detail and compression;
• cyclicity as the frequency of information processing stages for most technological processes with a fairly limited range of operations (sorting and grouping, arithmetic processing, comparison, accumulation of results, etc.);
• the possibility of long-term storage for reuse without loss of quality;
• the independence of content in relation to its carrier;
• wide distribution of various forms of documents with confirmation of their legal status.
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