Eye Traffic monitoring in Usability Evaluation

In this literature review I have talked about tests conducted on usability of varied interfaces and designs using eye-tracking. The authors of the paperwork focus on numerous kinds of eye movements for usability evaluations like saccades, pupil dilation, fixation, scanpaths etc. Based on these measurements the try to infer the point/area of interest of the users, point on accessibility, the cognitive load etc. about the user. These conclusions assist in understanding the attitude of the users which can be generalised to a larger populace within the proximity of your time and space and assist in making advice for better design of the software.

Benefits of eyeball tracking: Eye monitoring has benefits. Using eye traffic monitoring options for usability evaluation one can track the way the users connect to a given software or environment. They assist in measuring the effectiveness of a visual factor on the program. The measurements saved can give an insight in to the user's head while making the decision regrading looking or navigating an interface. This can be done by measuring what users are interested in, what they are ignoring and what's distracting them from other current responsibilities. They help in figuring out the region of Interest which I a randomly formed box which could contain some information or subject or potential interest to the user. The quantitative data collected through eye tracking provides visuals representation usually by means of heatmaps(hotspots) that assist in better understanding the results. Eyes traffic monitoring equipment's used now-a-days like Tobii and SMI are easy to set-up, calibrate and deal with. They are simply unobtrusive and provided correct real-time opinions. The fast passed usability trials of the software development industry, test conducted using eyeball monitoring can of valuable and useful insight providing benefits exactly what will help the users.

Eye Tracking in Usability Evalusation: A practitioner's Guide [1]

This newspaper is an over-all guideline on the utilization of eye tracking used for usability analysis. The author talks about the specialists who execute the analysis, the metrics used in combination with the testing, the protocol followed to carry out a test. They also speak about when eye tracking will come in handy as compared to the standard usability test which usually include heuristic evaluation, cognitive walkthrough, checklist, remoter-usability screening, click-tracking etc. The authors discuss the various types of eyeball moves that are assessed like saccades, fixation, pupil dilation, scanpaths etc. These motions provide a log of the visual attention of your consumer on the interface. Additionally it is interesting to learn that the attention tracking devices only track the movement of 1 eyes, usually the dominating attention of the beholder.

Saccades: rapid eyesight movements.

Fixation: A linger at a spot for more than 300ms.

Scanpath: established by the sequence of saccades and fixations.

Most of the studies conducted examined the fixation structure. Which can be realized through heatmaps. Red reveals the highest degree of fixation accompanied by inexperienced yellow. The areas which are not colored drew no attention.

F-Shaped Structure for reading web content[4]

The author says that a eye tracking research was conducted on 232 users on their reading behavior on webpages. They found a governing "F" shaped pattern that was undeviating among almost all of the users. The members of the experiment were fond to first adhere an extended horizontal gaze across the screen, accompanied by a short horizontal gaze on the region below and lastly giving an instant vertical check of this content of the web page. Occasionally there have been a few circumstances of an "E" and an "L" formed pattern but typically "F" was prominent with variation in the placement of the horizontal bars. These patterns suggest hat usres don't read the text on a site line by brand. They prefer to give a scan to see if any of the content available if of interest or not. Such reading patterns suggest that first paragraph should contain important and catchy information. While checking vertically users generally users generally read the first two words of the written text.

Visual Hierarchy and Looking at Behaviour: An eyesight tracking study[2]

The authors of the paper aim to suggest effective advancements in the look of a website to appeal to more users also to disperse important information in an effective manner. For this purpose, they have analyzed the gazing patterns of users. The writer have tried to decipher the real reason for the "F" form viewing design by most users that could be due to the arrangements of element on the program or the task at hand. To test this they used 4 prototypes of the website with each using a different aesthetic hierarchy. The prototypes differed by means of being well structed or not and 2 got images of men and women and 2 did not. 48 individuals were used for the study which were from different field of the industry and each one was presented with either a searching job or a browsing activity using one of the 4 prototypes. Fixation habits using heatmaps was used to investigate the data. It had been discovered that users fixate more on the part of the webpage which is above the flip. The "F" molded pattern was not apparent with the conditions as the web site was more visually complex when compared with a text centered simple website. The well organized and organized webpages drew more attention. During searching users tend to gaze in a spread manner with an increase of concentrate on the left side of the page where in fact the navigation links are usually located. Surfing around is less dispersed with few fixations time and is usually identified within the guts of the user interface. Encounters drew more attention only once they were put above the flip of the page and during surfing around. They concluded that these insights into a users viewing pattern can help make better designs for different type of websites to attract users.

No subjective scores were used to gain access to users comfort while interacting with different types of interfaces.

Efficiency Trust and overall look: Usability evaluation through eye monitoring[5]

The authors conducted a study on the efficiency, trust and overall look of a site and made advice on the type of an software would draw in more customers to an e-commerce website and which kind of user experience would make a first-time visitor a customer. The author believed that an factor of social occurrence will give a more gratifying experience while navigating an automatic website which lack humane warmth. This followed with a aesthetically pleasing interface can make the users trust the website more. To test this the authors came up with a set of jobs for the users and two hypothesis which were related to images of people on a website and the overall look of the website. 522 users were recruited for an online study and all of them were provided with an alternative prototype of the website. Users were asked the overall look and the level of trust on the website using seven point Likert scales. After accomplishing p on the web study, authors concluded that websites with images of individuals are more aesthetically appealing and in turn elicit a higher degree of trust. It had been fond that the users conduct the search from kept to right. The web study was accompanied by an eye tracking experiment to verify the results of the web study. They used a count heat map and a fixation heatmap. 40 were recruited for the eye tracking experiment. The experiment confirmed that images of faces are definitely more helpful in attracting attention.

Gender Choices in Web Design: Usability Examining through Eye monitoring[6]

The authors of this papers tried to research the visual predilections of male and female users. They may have tried to find he noticeability of bricklets(small box containing useful information) based on their background color images by male and feminine users. Since men and girl have different idea of attractiveness, an hypothesis was made on the noticeability of different prototypes of the bricklets. Men tend to like dark colors and women tend to like light color. 36 individuals were chosen for the analysis out of which 17 were male and 19 were feminine. 4 type of bricklets were made with dark and light background color and with and without images. Responsibilities were designed in such a way so that the users were analyzed on their capability to discover certain kind of bricklets. It had been found that both male and feminine fixate less on images and more on the bricklets without images. Female users were drawn more to the darker background bricklets and male users were not biased towards a particular colour. The study figured what users find pleasing is not necessary noticeable this was reinforced by the discrepancy in self report study and the fixation length on the bricklets by the users.

Generation Y and Web Design: Usability through Eyesight tracking[7]

The aim of the authors of the newspaper is to appear for better design advice for retail sites to catch the attention of the millennial generation also is aware as technology Y. This generation poses the strongest internet skills and spend around $200 each year on online retail. An hypothesis is manufactured that Generation Y like large images ideally of celebrities and with search features and as little text as it can be. Top 50 retail internet pages were determined. These web pages were positioned on the characteristics posed by them predicated on the predilections of technology Y. A home report research and an eye tracking study was conducted to compare both results. 99 individuals were chosen who possessed strong internet skills for the do it yourself report analysis. 9 participants were selected for the eye tracking test. The study and the info provided by the attention tracking device recognized the hypothesis made.

Eye traffic monitoring in Web Search Tasks: Design Implications [3]

The authors of the newspaper conducted an eyeball tracking usability tests for a web portal application that was produced by Oracle portal software. Seven users were picked to complete six jobs for the study. The users came across 15 displays while completing their jobs and had to invest around 360 mere seconds to complete one job. The authors noted the key presses and mouse clicks on the user interface and eye activities like saccades and fixations and the dwell time on the Area of Interest were diligently recorded. Every task started with a set of scenario and required an individual to perform them predicated on his understanding. The ends in this study weren't in the proper execution heatmaps but rather by means of screen bitmap data files, fixation document and object record. These documents were amalgamated to execute data analysis. The analysis was performed in an exceedingly organized way. The authors examined the eye movements of the users at the task level then at the screen level and then finally at the thing level with the focus on Market. In-depth review was conducted regarding display visits and distribution. The authors analyzed the pattern for navigating within and between portlets and figured there can be an inclination for the users to note the portlets on the left and top of the area of the screen in view. The authors tried out to discover a relationship between individual action, scene collection and the data derived from the eye movement.

Age-related Variations in Eye Traffic monitoring and Usability Performance: Website usability for Aged Individuals [8].

The authors of the newspaper conducted usability analysis of websites through attention tracking to make design advice which keep in head the needs and simple usability and navigation of old men and women. 5 websites were used for the experiment. And a comparison was made on how you and old people connect to the surroundings. Around 3-7 young adults and 2-3 aged parents were recruited. Most of them a possessed an operating knowledge about using the internet. The participants received predefined tasks and their fixations were documented using the unobtrusive eye traffic monitoring device. The individuals also filled out a questionnaire to report their satisfaction level. It had been found that elderly adults focus more on the center part of the display screen and ignore the information on the peripheral areas. Cluttered periphery results performance hindrance for the old users. The ignorance of the edge of the display can be related to the cognitive decrease encountered scheduled to growing era. Older people were less correct and efficient as compared to younger adults. Aged adults who are ususally unfamiliar with the environment get easily distracted by unneeded elements.

Seven users are very less as compared to the recommendation of 10-30 members made by [1]. There were often stements made by the authors that there is "presently inadequate evidence to support the idea" [3] recommending that clearly 7 members for the experiment was not enough and the results produced can be a threat to external validity. [1] also suggest to recruit 20% more individuals in the event there are issues with calibiratio of the equipment with the users. [2] used 48 users from different areas of the industry sector age not stated. 40 people in [5]. [6] 99 members were recruited. [8] few users. Restricts on generalizations made.

Users were examined for their visual acuity

The users were designed to hint demographic, consent and disclosure forms.

The authors conducted primary training tasks

They used a head attached system. Although these systems are best for tasks which might require a lot of mind or body movement, they are really obtrusive. They obstruct a certain part of the of the field of view of the user and can interrupt a consumer in hi cognitive process or job at hand as he is constantly reminded of any apparatus being set up on his head.

Since this test was conducted in 2002 the eye tracking equipment used that time weren't technologically that advanced. Therefore, a lot of time and effort gone into analyzing the info. Tape recorders were used to fully capture users feedback and a video recording recorder was also used for comprehensive analysis.

While executing the experiment it was discovered that one of the users got very less time to complete the task as compared to others. The authors figured users learned about the user interface while executing the responsibilities. But since one of the users proved less reaction to the perfect time to the given activity accessible the inference suffers from a menace to inner validity because he possessed past understanding of similar software.

Threats to generalizibilty as an intrusive installation was used.

Dis advantages: tedious, requires comprehensive data reduction, give attention to micro-level behaviours, too much noises in the data. Lots of work required to thin down on the data that is needed

Eye tracking review is usually conducted where results of traditional software usability email address details are compared with that of the results from the eye tracking derived results. The traditional usability tests are usually done using five point Likert size.

In many tests authors have figured users tend towards noticing the top left area of the program. It maybe possible that users in these experiments are used to dialects that goes still left to right and therefore are natural disposed to look at the upper left part of the screen. If there experiments were conducted over a subset of populace that are being used to dialects that go from to left then there might have been different results.

Most of the paperwork have conclude that users tend to ignore important information what's located in the bottom of the web page which if below the flip. It could be father investigated that is the fact that information is followed with an image of any person then would it draw in users or not.

While looking into the usability of any interface usually two types of responsibilities were used: browsing and looking. This is because it the looking at behaviours of the users change depending on the task. In looking the users look for a spot of entrance into a page and then from their he scans the near to the point of access for relevant information.

In the heatmap the areas that are red could be the point of accessibility for those elements of the user interface and the yellowish and inexperienced areas in the heatmap are the surrounding locations where in fact the users try to identify relevant information.

Since the search process is majorly affected by the factors such as, images, color and content material. Designers can utilize these factors to steer the searching procedure for the users

A style was found that larger images attracts more attention as compared to smaller images. This can be used to attract consumer attention towards information that need immediate attention.

Studies claim that images of folks tend to get more attention. For [2] more prototypes of the web pages would have be formulated and compared to decide if that really was true.

Heat maps are created using data from several members and are used to analyze the design of fixation on a location on the interface.

The studies in [2] are in contrast with the one in [4] where the publisher has concluded over a dominant "F" shaped pattern. It can be ingested what for a text established website with a straightforward aesthetic hierarchy an "F" shaped pattern of looking at is more noticeable but for websites that have a complex aesthetic hierarchy the looking at style in more scattered although centering a whole lot on the left aspect if the software which again is dominated by the users reading style form left to right. Different results will most definitely be produced with users who are habitual in reading from to left.

In basic websites with good visual appeal and easy navigation elicit trust worthiness and are major contributing factors towards an increased consumer experience.

[5] says that whenever since images attract attention, may be used to draw users focus on important info below the fold of a page. But the author of [2] contradicts this by stating that even though images of individual faces were placed below they fold they attracted very little attention.

[5] says that there is no effect of the gender of the image of the facial skin on the website however in [?] notice a great deal re places on heat map within the images of a female. Also, further studies can be conducted to see male images are more appealing than female image and which gender of the images catch the attention of the male users and which gender of the images attract the feminine users.

The examination of the heat maps performed by [5] was more set up as they used a standardized heatmap. Such a map puts a limit on the amount of fixations to be considered as a red area across different prototypes.

Although in [5] the authors conclude that users trust level can be improved by the increasing visual appeal it ought to be noted that overall look is not all that matters, functionality of an online site also plays a significant role.

the authors of [5] said that users are drawn toward the area where the images of encounters were located but little fixation on the images. That is opposed by [?] where the authors have figured era Y is then to fixate on the images of faces more. Then again the age difference between your individuals in [5] was disseminate which means two documents made contradictory statements. Also, since [5] is making recommendations for a e-commerce website which is mainly used by era Y they would have narrowed down the are limit of the members of the experiment.

Papers [5] and [2] figured images of encounters appeal to more attention but it maybe possible that images of different genre may be more effective. These images when matched with a decreases aesthetic quality web page may not appeal to any attention by any means.

Keeping the honest issues in mind [], [], and [] did not made the users hint Up to date consent form and no information is provided if the participants were briefed or not.

[7] claim that technology Y is more drawn towards images of stars. But the review may fail exterior validity as it hasn't considered the populace of the individuals who are not familiar with those celebrities. To increase this study a search process could have been directed at the users to get a far more indepth understang of likes and dislikes of technology as done ny authorss in [2] and [3].

[7] conducted a study on generation Y but we know that seniors are constitute major part of the populace that uses the internet. Results form [2], [7] and [5] can be put together to make recommendations for designs that would appeal to more users and increase end user satisfaction. These designs would generally contain much more images of encounters, important information will be located on top left corner of the display screen. To attract attention towards the area of the page below the fold images of stars can be utilized in a powerful manner.

Most studies concluded that users tend to give attention to the left side of the program but the studies conducted in[8] concluded that older adults ignore the kept navigation area. This suggests that more radiant users who are definitely more acquainted with the software know where to check out for navigation but this insufficient knowledge and experience hinder the performance of a mature adult.

To help you the tease out the age result designers can do a "dual position" where navigation information can be located in the center and the peripherals of the display screen.

All the attention monitoring studies performed were under a laboratory condition. Here the users are asked to perform task in which they might be interested. These results maybe different in a genuine world situation when users are undertaking responsibilities of their own interest and know that the are not being checked.

Also We Can Offer!

Other services that we offer

If you don’t see the necessary subject, paper type, or topic in our list of available services and examples, don’t worry! We have a number of other academic disciplines to suit the needs of anyone who visits this website looking for help.

How to ...

We made your life easier with putting together a big number of articles and guidelines on how to plan and write different types of assignments (Essay, Research Paper, Dissertation etc)