Features of the TCP-IP stack - Informatics

TCP/IP stack features

When it comes to building large (global) networks, this protocol stack is preferred over other protocols, since it has been Internet-centric since its inception and has many useful properties. These properties include:

• The ability to fragment packets. A large composite network often consists of (sub) networks constructed on completely different principles, and each of them can have an eigenvalue of the unit (length) of the transmitted data. When moving from one network to another, you may need to reduce the length of the data. The specified protocol property allows to split (fragment) the transmitted packet (frame) into several parts;

• Flexible addressing system (three levels of addresses: symbolic, logical and physical), which makes it simpler to include different technologies in an integrated network of networks of a similar purpose,

• Economical use of broadcast broadcasts, which is essential when working on slow communication lines, typical for territorial networks;

• Interpretation of the functions of the lowest level (network interfaces). The TCP/IP stack, unlike other multilevel stacks, is freed from performing a large number of OSI channel and physical layer functions. At the lower level of the stack, it is only the responsibility to organize interaction with (sub-networks) of the composite network, which requires more simple procedures. This feature makes the composite TCP/IP network open to enable an additional network with any data transfer technology. At the same time for each new technology must be developed their own interface tools. Usually, when such a technology of local or global networks appears, it is quickly included in the TCP/IP stack by developing an appropriate document - an Internet standard that defines the method of encapsulating IP packets in its frames.

However, the wide functionality of the TCP/IP stack protocols requires large computational costs for its implementation. A flexible addressing system and the rejection or restriction of broadcast broadcasts lead to the emergence of a variety of centralized services in the IP network: Domain Name System (DNS), Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), etc. Each of these services is directed to facilitate the administration of the network, but at the same time itself requires close attention from administrators. Despite this, admittedly the TCP/IP stack is the most popular protocol stack, which is widely used in both global and local networks. Currently, the transition to a new version of IPv6, which will remove many of the accumulated problems.

IPX/SPX stack

The stack was developed by Novell for NetWare networks. The network layer of this stack also includes routing protocols (RIP and NLSP). The basis of the stack is the network layer protocol IPX (Internetwork Packet Exchange), which provides addressing and routing of packets and their non-guaranteed delivery between nodes of different IPX-networks. Over IPX, the transport layer protocol SPX (Sequenced Packet Exchange) is used, which ensures connection and guaranteed delivery of packets in the correct order. IPX protocol can use Ethernet technologies, Token Ring, ARCnet, 100VG, FDDI.

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