Forming a domain model
The modern level of tools allows you to work on a computer at a certain level, for example, when using editors, many users. However, when working in depth with information related to its collection, creation of a database, information processing, presentation for further use, considerable difficulties arise. This is due to the inability to work in a computer environment in a natural language. All information describing a particular subject area must be abstracted and formalized in a certain way.
The main areas of formalization of information about the domain are:
• The theory of classification, based on the taxonomic and meromonomic description of information. The taxonomic description is based on the ideology of sets, and the meronomical description is implemented through a strictly formalized definition of classes;
• The theory of measurements, which offers a basis for qualitative and quantitative measurements through classification and ordinal scales;
• Semiotics studying sign systems in terms of syntactics, semantics and pragmatics.
Before going directly to the questions of formalization and the abstracted description, let us briefly touch upon questions of terminology.
The concept of information in the general plan should be connected with a certain subject area, the properties of which it reflects. In a narrower sense, the concept of information is associated with a specific object. In this case, the relative independence of information from the carrier is observed, since it is possible to transform and transmit it through various physical media with the help of a variety of physical signals, regardless of its content, i.e. to semantics, which was the central issue of many studies, including in the philosophical science. Information about any material object can be obtained by observation, full-scale or computational experiment, and also on the basis of logical inference. Therefore, they say about the pre-experienced, or a priori information and the post-experimental, i.e. a posteriori, obtained as a result of the experiment.
The subject area is the real world that must be reflected in the information base.
Facts is the result of monitoring the state of the domain.
Data is a kind of information that is highly formatted, unlike the more free structures that are characteristic of speech, text and visual information
Information base (database) - a set of data intended for joint use.
Knowledge is the result of theoretical and practical human activity, reflecting the accumulation of previous experience and characterized by a high degree of structuring.
In knowledge, there are three main components:
• declarative (factorial knowledge), representing a general description of the object, which does not allow them to be used without preliminary structuring in a specific subject area;
• conceptual (system) knowledge that contains, in addition to the first part, the relationship between concepts and the properties of concepts;
• procedural (algorithmic) knowledge, which allows to obtain a solution algorithm.
Subject - every material thing, the object of knowledge. In logic, the object is all that is aimed at our thought; all that can be somehow perceived, named, etc. In this sense, the subject is also considered a judgment, a concept, a conclusion. In mathematical logic, objects are denoted by symbols - subject constants and object variables.
Property is what is inherent in objects, which distinguishes them from other objects or makes them look like other objects. Each item has an infinite number of properties. Properties are manifested in the interaction of objects.
Symptom - everything in which objects, phenomena are similar to each other or in what they differ from each other; an indicator, a side of an object or phenomenon by which one can recognize, define or describe an object or phenomenon.
The attribute (Latin attributum - intended, endowed, attached) is an inalienable, essential, necessary property, a sign of an object or phenomenon, without which they can not exist, be themselves, unlike accidental , transitory, non-essential properties, or accidents.
Thus, for the current state of information technology, a transition from an information description of the domain to a presentation at the data level is necessary, carried out on the basis of decomposition, abstraction, aggregation.
Decomposition is the partitioning of