Fundamentals of Systems Modeling
Model and Modeling
The term model (from Latin modelium - measure, method, similarity with some thing) is widely used in various spheres of human activity and has a variety of meanings.Model - is an object or description of an object, a system for replacing (under certain conditions, proposals, hypotheses) one system (i.e., the original) original or reproduction of any of its properties [1, 8].
Model - is the result of mapping one structure (studied) to another (little-studied). Any model is constructed and investigated under certain assumptions, hypotheses. The model is developed so that it most fully reproduces the quality of the object, which must be studied in accordance with the goal [2, 4].
We are under the model we will understand a certain material or mentally presented object, which in the process of research replaces the original object in such a way that its direct study will give new knowledge about the original object.
In all respects, the model should be simpler than the object and more convenient for learning. Thus, for the same object there can exist different models, classes of models, corresponding to different purposes of its study. A necessary condition for modeling is the similarity of the object and its model. In this case, we need to talk about the adequacy of the model to the original object.
If the simulation results are confirmed and can serve as a basis for predicting the processes occurring in the objects under study, then it is said that the model is adequate to the object. In this case, the adequacy of the model depends on the purpose of the simulation and the criteria adopted.
An adequate model is understood as a model that, with a certain degree of approximation, at the understanding level of the modeled system, the developer of the model reflects the process of its functioning in the external environment. By adequacy (from Latin adaequatus - equated) we will understand the degree of correspondence between the results obtained from the developed model, experimental data or test problem. If the system for which the model is developed exists, then the output of the model and this system is compared. In the event that two sets of data turn out to be similar, the model of the existing system is considered adequate. The more common between the existing system and its model, the more confidence in the correctness of the model of the system.
Checking the adequacy of the model is necessary in order to verify the validity of the set of hypotheses formulated at the first stage of model development and the accuracy of the results obtained by the technical assignment.
For accuracy models, 10 ... 15% accuracy is considered satisfactory, and 1 ... 2%  for models intended for use in control and monitoring systems.
Any model has the following properties:
• Finiteness: the model displays the original only in a finite number of its relations;
• simplicity: the model displays only the essential sides of the object;
• approximate: the reality is displayed roughly or roughly;
• adequacy: the model successfully describes the simulated system;
• Informative: the model should contain sufficient information about the system within the hypotheses adopted in the construction of the model .
The process of constructing, studying and applying models will be called modeling, that is, we can say that modeling is a method of researching an object by constructing and studying its model, carried out for a specific purpose and consisting in replacing of the original model.
Simulation is based on the mathematical theory of similarity, according to which absolute similarity can occur only when one object is replaced by another, exactly the same. When modeling most systems (with the possible exception of modeling some mathematical structures by others), absolute similarity is not possible, and the main goal of modeling is to obtain a model that sufficiently reflects the functioning of the modeled system. 
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