Global Information Systems
The rapid development of information and communication technologies in the last quarter of XX in "the emergence of high-speed distributed high-power computing systems, reliable communication systems led to the fact that it became possible to connect the various computing systems. Such systems were built on many computers connected in networks, covered territorially distributed and virtually distributed spaces and were initially designed to improve the reliability of the computer system in the event of failure of its individual elements. The expansion and consolidation of local and territorially distributed networks eventually led to the formation of the Wide Area Networks phenomenon (WAN), united under the common name of the Internet (Internet) or the World Wide Web (World-Wide Web-WWW) (Figure 11.12).
The main elements of WWW technology are:
• HyperText Markup Language (HTML);
• Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP);
• Universal Resource Identifier (URI) using a Uniform Resource Locator (URL);
• Domain Name System (DNS) System
• Universal Gateway Interface (CGI), later added by employees of the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA).
Fig. 11.12. General scheme of the global information system
The Internet has become popular due to the use of effective communication methods (based on modern standardized communication protocols) and working with information located on remote computers or other devices.
In addition to the direct functions for the transit of data of any type, Internet technologies provide a wide range of various information services implemented by various services:
• the service for sending and receiving messages (E-mail);
• The hypertext environment (WWW);
• File Transfer Protocol (FTP);
• remote computer management (Teletype Network - Telnet);
• Domain Name System (DNS);
• Teleconferences (Users Network - Usenet) and chat rooms (Internet Relay Chat - IRC);
From the user's point of view, the information space of the World Wide Web consists of documents of various formats (multimedia documents), subject indexes and links. To navigate through a link or search for a pointer, the user will use the appropriate browser, understanding hypertext markup language. The search engine searches for a link or keywords in the web the desired directory, reads its structure, reads the required document and forwards it to the user. The web server automatically generates a hypertextual representation of the required files at the request of the user.
The variety of protocols, services, client applications, the ability to work with almost any server platform (Linux, Windows, Solaris, BSD, etc.) and operating systems have made the Internet a powerful tool widely used in business. Distributed information systems built on Internet technologies have become a common phenomenon (Figure 11.13). Many areas of business have received the prefix "e" - e-Business, which means e-business.
Today the Internet is the basis for the transition to an information society and is gradually becoming a global industry in the information, economic and social spaces.
Fig. 11.13. An example of a distributed CIS, built on an Internet technology bay ...
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