Hypertext Internet technologies, Hypertext structures...

Hypertext Internet Technologies

Hypertext structures: concept evolution

The World Wide Web consists of an ever-growing array of (billions of files) of documents (web pages > web-pages ) , linked by the hyperlink mechanism (English hyperlink ) , with each such document can be indexed (described) under special rules by search engines (search engines, or "search engines", English Search engine , or Web search engine) with the help of special computer programs - search robots (Eng. web-crawler, web-spider ) , which makes it possible to search for any complexity on the user's request, presentation of the relevant document (file). Web-linked documents form hypertext space, or hypertext, where the English term < web , so the format of the information that underlies all the information materials on the Internet and largely determines their basic properties is the format of hypertext structures. This is largely determined by the fact that over the past few years the concept of hypertext has come to the fore in all projects to study the patterns of the functioning of Internet content and has become a popular topic of researching the ways and algorithms for storing and processing information, which is reflected in numerous speeches at conferences on informatics, artificial intelligence, structural and applied linguistics, cognitive psychology and the theory and practice of distance learning.

Of particular interest is the fundamentally non-linear organization and connection of information units of any modality of human perception ( hypermedia : text, audio, video, etc.). Extremely effective were very simple and friendly to the user mechanisms of non-linear management of hypertext units that allow you to quickly adapt and rebuild hypertext space in accordance with the information requests of the user and the author's idea of ​​hypertext. As noted in 1991, one of the leading United States researchers of the phenomenon of hypertext VL Epstein, "maximalists argue that the development of hypertext technologies will bring consequences comparable to the invention of printing". Today, you can rightly admit the validity of this statement.

If we turn to the history of the formation of the concept of the hypertext form of organization and presentation of information as a special information, linguistic and psychological (primarily cognitive) phenomenon, it should be noted that for the first time the term "hypertext" - was put into circulation by the American scientist Ted Nelson in 1965 to describe documents (for example, stored in a computer) that reflect the nonlinear structure of ideas, as opposed to the linear structure of traditional books, films, etc. T. Nelson writes: "By" hypertext "I understand an inconsistent record. Usually the process of writing is carried out consistently for the following two reasons. Firstly, because it is derived from speech ... which can not fail to be consistent (since we have only one channel for this), and secondly, because books are inconvenient to read otherwise than sequentially. However, thoughts form structures that are not consistent - they are connected by many possible transitions. "

Developing the ideas of Nelson and other hypertext theorists, his first United States researcher VL Epstein describes the two most characteristic characteristics of hypertext from his point of view, which make it the basis of all computer communication: "Hypertext allows you to link text, audio, photos , drawings, maps, moving pictures and other forms of information into a meaningful whole, which can be accessed through an indexing system focused on specific ideas, and ns on specific words in the text ... Hypertext can be defined as non-linear documentation, documentation that branches and interconnects, allowing the reader to examine the information contained in it, in a sequence that he himself chooses .

Although the term hypertext appeared quite recently, the very idea of ​​non-linear representation of information and attempts to implement it on different material carriers existed long before the invention of the computer and the advent of the Internet era. Traditional written dictionaries and encyclopedias are a very ancient type of hypertext structures, as they can also be represented as a network of text fragments (equivalents of information nodes in modern hypertext), which are connected by means of referential links. The Talmud, Bibilia with their developed system of quoting and commenting, the ancient Indian epic "Ramayana" and Mahabharata and other literary works in which the narrative coupling is used, stringing each other information fragments, can also be attributed to the oldest prototypical samples of hypertext.

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