Informatics - the science of information elements, information processes and information systems
On the basis of the initial definition of informatics, proposed in 1963 by FI Temnikov as a way of systemizing disparate information about information and informatics, it is possible to distinguish three main parts (Figure 1.2):
1) information elements ;
2) information processes,
3) information systems.
Fig. 1.2. The structure of informatics by FE Temnikov
Given the awareness of the wide range of problems currently included in the direction summarized by the term "computer science", a number of scientists believe that the very definition of Temnikov should be revived and accepted as a generalizing definition of the science of information as a science about information elements, information processes and information systems. This definition is especially important for the preparation of bachelors and masters in the areas of "System Analysis and Management", which is focused on the need analysis of the meaning, the content of the information, the development and selection of appropriate methods and tools for the study of information processes of collection, storage, processing and presentation of information in relation to specific areas and situations of decision-making. We interpret these parts with reference to the present period of the development of information sciences.
Informatics - the theory of information elements
Information is the mapping of material and non-material objects and their properties. Information element is a reflection of existing (considered) elements, elementary objects that are taken into account when solving the tasks posed.
In the theory of systems, the element is defined as the limit of the system's division from the point of view of the aspect of its consideration, the purpose of the study or the creation and the particular problem being solved [1, 19, 22, etc.].
When determining the composition of elements of computer science, one should keep in mind the presence of two main components of informatics - information and means of processing it.
As information elements , first of all, to consider data. In the technical sciences, computer science initially developed as a science of data transfer and processing, and as elements, symbols were considered: letters, numbers, words. Then - details about the details, blocks and other components of the objects under consideration.
In socio-economic systems, information about the objects of the production or service process, indicators characterizing the state of the object, the socio-economic process occurring in the existing system of change are considered as data.
For the name of the data sets, the terms information array, database (DB), data warehouse are entered.
For positioning an organization in the economy, regulatory and legal information is required, represented in the form of documentary information, ie. texts, in which you need to look for elements such as norms, articles, ie. Text fragments.
To organize the management of the enterprise (organization), there is a need for regulatory, technical, regulatory, methodological, marketing, monitoring information, which is documentary-factographic, ie. again in the form of texts, from which you need to extract specific data about production standards, the state of the environment, information about the presence and chains of goods in the markets, etc.>
In each specific case, it is necessary to allocate information elements taking into account the task and the required degree of detail.
To collect, transfer, store, process and present information to decision-makers, technologies are needed, technical and software tools which are also computer science elements.
The hardware includes computers and related peripherals (monitors, keyboards, printers and plotters, modems, etc.), communication lines and other means of office equipment, i.e. those material means that ensure the systematization, storage and transformation of information. The most important task of computer science is the study and provision of "friendly" interface between a person and hardware-software information processing tools.
The dialogue of the computer with the person is carried out using artificial languages. Languages intended for the implementation of formal algorithms are called algorithmic, or programming languages. To date, many algorithmic languages have been created to describe the problems of various classes. As the algorithms become more sophisticated, specialized languages are developed - procedural-oriented, problem-oriented, logical programming languages, which are also elements of computer science.
The communication between a person and a computer is greatly simplified if there are ready programs, corresponding to the nature of the tasks being solved. To software ( products ) include operating systems, integrated shells, software programming and design systems, various application programs such as text and image editors, accounting and publishing systems and etc. The call of the finished programs and their execution are carried out in accordance with the instructions for the operation of the computer.
In the design and manufacture of any software or hardware, because of their complexity, mathematical methods, models and algorithms are used.
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