Informatics - Theory of Information Systems
As mentioned in the introduction, the term system For the first time, applied to computer science, it was included in the name "data processing system". (ODS) and in this capacity was used in the military sphere with reference to the management of missile systems, in the field of space communications and the management of artificially created space objects. In the same form it was used in the collection and processing of statistical information on the state of the atmosphere. Later, the term SOD was used in the socio-economic sphere and in the collection and processing of statistical data on the state of production and other socio-economic processes.
At the same time, the information system (IP) is a more complex category, and the term has become widely used for systems that include not only the technical facilities serviced by humans (human-machine systems) as a basis, but more so with regard to social and socio-economic information systems , without which at a certain stage of civilization development its existence and development became impossible (for more details, see Chapter 3). Such systems were called automated information systems (AIS).
In the history of the concept of the information system (IS), in this sense, several directions developed relatively independently. At the same time, since the concept of the information system began to be rethought and formed in connection with the automation of information storage and retrieval, this concept became practically inseparable from the notions - Automated Information System and the Information retrieval system .
Since the 1960s. in the history of the development of information systems in our country relatively independently formed two areas:
• development of automated information systems - LIS as the first stage of automated control systems - ACS;
• Development of automated systems of scientific and technical information - ASNTI. The work was carried out on the basis of the system-target approach. ACS and ASNTI were created for all levels and directions of the country's governance: state, sectoral, regional, enterprises and organizations. AIS were created as factographic information systems with the representation of information to users in the form of regulated forms, in which the data were grouped in accordance with the algorithms of the applied management tasks solved on its basis. ASNTI were developed as documentary information retrieval systems (DIPS).
For the management of developments, relevant guidance methodological documents that fulfill the role of standards were prepared and approved.
The enterprises created systems of normative and methodological management (SNOMO) and their automated version - ASNMOU.
In connection with the political and economic changes in 1990-1991, work was suspended. During this period, up to 1999, foreign local information systems and databases were acquired, which were introduced at enterprises and in various firms, separate pages of documentary and factual information were created on the Internet.
But then there is a gradual adaptation to the new economic conditions, and in particular information resources and some principles of the organization of the State System of Scientific and Technical Information (SSSTI) have been preserved in the system, which is now provisionally called the United States GSNTI (RGSNTI). >
In the transition to a market economy under the rule of law have increased the role of another important type of information -. regulatory has started to create automated systems of the legal documentation (AS NAP) or reference systems (ATP) of various kinds and purposes (Consultant Plus systems, Code, Garant, etc.).
Information systems (IP) of state management at the federal and municipal levels, in particular: the IP of state statistics, IP of natural resources, phenomena and processes, state systems of economic, financial and scientific and technical information are developed on a new technical base using modern technologies , foreign economic activity, IP of the library network of the Federal Republic of Germany and other special purpose entities.
Types and classifications of information systems, definitions of information systems of different types, the principles for their development are discussed in Ch. 3 and 6.
Fractality in the structure of computer science
The stratified representation of the informatics structure, shown in Fig. 1.2, reflects the development of information systems, for the creation of which it is necessary to select the elements, to form the processes that determine the structure of the information system.
At the same time, the spheres of information elements, information processes and information systems develop relatively independently, and they can be represented as equal in the form of a tree-like hierarchical structure (Figure 1.3).
Fig. 1.3. Fractality of the structure of informatics FE Temnikov
Such a view allows us to take into account the fractality of the components, which in hierarchical structures is manifested in the fact that at the lower level of the hierarchy, we can apply the same structural feature as at the higher level; within the scope of the information systems (IS) there are elements (IE), and processes (IP). Similarly, within the scope of the information items we can talk about the creation of technical and software complexes, which in a number of situations can be qualified as information systems, and information processes in local networks. In the same way, in the information processes you can select the appropriate elements and create graphs of sequences of information transformations in time that can be considered information systems.
The multidimensionality of informatics leads to the fact that the initially selected components (strata) can be interpreted differently.
So, the author of the selection of these components, FE Temnikov, in his subsequent works proposed various options. In proposing the canonical definition of informatics, he introduced the notion information categories instead of the notion information elements & quot ;, and applied various ways of structuring them, and later specified functions and processes in information systems (see Chapter 4).
The concept of information categories represented as a set
K = & lt; I, B, F, C, L, M & gt ;, (1.1)
where I is information; B - the basis, the material carrier of information; F - the infosphere, the information field; C - content, types of information; L - languages, codes and forms of information expression; M is the metric of information.
Subsequent studies have shown that in specific conditions, the structuring methods can be different taking into account the type and nature of the sphere, the objects for which the concept of informatics is applied. For technical, biological, socio-economic objects it is important to take out various components at the upper levels of structuring, which is important in the development of models for research and design of technical complexes, and especially information systems for enterprises, organizations and other production and socio-economic objects.
Also We Can Offer!
- Argumentative essay
- Best college essays
- Buy custom essays online
- Buy essay online
- Cheap essay
- Cheap essay writing service
- Cheap writing service
- College essay
- College essay introduction
- College essay writing service
- Compare and contrast essay
- Custom essay
- Custom essay writing service
- Custom essays writing services
- Death penalty essay
- Do my essay
- Essay about love
- Essay about yourself
- Essay help
- Essay writing help
- Essay writing service reviews
- Essays online
- Fast food essay
- George orwell essays
- Human rights essay
- Narrative essay
- Pay to write essay
- Personal essay for college
- Personal narrative essay
- Persuasive writing
- Write my essay
- Write my essay for me cheap
- Writing a scholarship essay