INFORMATION AND TELECOMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES AND SYSTEMS IN MARKETING
As a result of studying this chapter, the student must:
• Components of information and telecommunication technologies and systems: hardware and software;
• the essence of the modern term "information technology";
• The concept of MRP II;
• The concept of an Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system;
• The essence and main components of Customer Relationship Management (CRM), Supply Chain Management (SCM), Business Analysis (BI), Knowledge Management (KM)
• concepts "telecommunications network", "protocol" and interface & quot ;;
• signs reflecting the properties of the network: territorial prevalence, departmental affiliation, information transfer rate, type of transmission medium;
• The concept of local area networks and their examples are Arcnet, Ethernet and Token Ring;
• Oracle CRM software components;
• the concept of "corporate information systems";
• concepts intranet and extranet & quot ;;
• Basic concepts in the management system: transaction processing systems (OLTP); information management systems, decision support systems (DSS);
• software development and production through outsourcing;
be able to
• to form the stages of the development of computer technology as a result of innovative technological solutions;
• evaluate the stages of the development of corporate information systems;
• Develop network technologies for marketing tasks;
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• to characterize performance indicators, extensibility, scalability, reliability of networks;
• carry out the classification of telecommunications networks;
• evaluate foreign and United States telecommunications networks;
• At the application level, create HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) protocols, Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMPT), and File Transfer Protocol (FTP);
• Implement CRM-systems aimed at improving customer relationships,
• classify Oracle CRM software components;
• determine the prospects for the development of information technology;
• MRP enterprise management standard, CSRP standard;
• the development of telecommunications networks on the basis of the open systems interaction model - the OSI reference model;
• the development of modules that form the field of interaction between applied processes and physical resources on seven levels: applied, representative, session, transport, network, channel and physical (OSI/ISO, IPS models);
• various ways of classifying corporate information systems: by type of firmware, purpose, scope, type of decision, method of creation;
• the skills of building an individual solution for companies of different scale and areas of activity using the center of customer interactions Altitude
• the scheme of information support of the buyer and the interface of the module Marketing Online.
Evolution of Information Technology
The effective solution of the tasks of the economy has always been based on objective, fact-based and analysis. An example is the activities of General Motors. At the beginning of the XX century. Albert Sloan, the head of the company General Motors from 1923 to 1956, introduced the practice of traveling around the country in a special office car in order to obtain reliable and operational facts and information about the activities of his company. Today, the situation has changed, and the company General Motors for the interaction with dealers and customers uses modern ICC GM Access, which uses an extensive satellite intranet connecting the central office, the company's plants and 9000 dealers. This system allows dealers to use a variety of technologies for financial management and operational planning on-line, manage orders, analyze sales, forecast demand, obtain information about products and chains, etc. Employees of service departments receive information on spare parts, which is contained in electronic manuals and technical bulletins, as well as in reports on stocks and supply plans. In addition, the CIS is integrated with the website (gm.com) of the corporation, which provides information for potential customers and investors (Figure 3.1).
Fig. 3.1. Corporation website General Motors
In other words, today the corporation continues to conduct business on the basis of facts, with the only difference that processing and analysis of the increased volumes of information occurs using information and telecommunication technologies and systems. It is with their help that the infrastructure of modern business is created.
Information and telecommunication technologies and systems traditionally contain two components: hardware, including computing machines, network telecommunications and other computer equipment, and software, consisting from programs, agreements, standards, etc., intended for the operation of hardware. In addition to these elements, the so-called algorithmic (intelligent ) security is of great importance, which is the task of configuring hardware and deploying software in accordance with the goals and objectives, object.
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Since, as is known, the solution of marketing tasks begins with the collection, processing and storage of data with the subsequent formation of relevant information from them, all components of information and telecommunication technologies and systems represent the basis of effective marketing, and to the traditional set of 4P marketing, in which includes price, promotion, place, product, processing can be added.
Using the capabilities of modern technologies provides support for marketing activities, providing, on the one hand, the information necessary to make marketing decisions, and on the other - the infrastructure for the implementation of services in new ways. The search for suppliers, sellers, investors, market research, customer support, and the coordination and control of business processes in various organizations, processing of data in real time (online processing), providing direct access to data are just some of the possibilities of new technologies. Undoubtedly, a certain role in this process is given to the possibilities of the Internet, especially since the level of its maturity ensures the implementation of marketing research, the establishment of bilateral contacts in order to meet demand, taking into account consumer preferences, the sale of goods and after-sales services, etc., creating real competitive advantages in a globalized economy.
In this chapter, the main directions of development of information and telecommunication technologies and systems are considered taking into account their capabilities and practical application in marketing activities.Information technology is a combination of methods and software tools integrated into the technological chain that provides collection, processing, storage, distribution and display of information in order to reduce the laboriousness of information resource use processes, their reliability and efficiency.
Information processing has a long history of development, rooted in the invention of the first account and printer. The modern term information technologies appeared in the late 1970's. and began to designate the processing of information using computer technology.
The development of computer technology took place in several stages, each of which was the result of innovative technological solutions and led to the creation of computers of a new generation (Figure 3.2).
Computers of the first generation, created on the basis of vacuum tubes, had low performance and, consequently, limited use. The invention of transistors and their serial production led to the emergence of computers of the second generation. The high availability of such computers, as well as serious advances in software development allowed them to be used in economic activities for processing and storing economic information.>
Since the mid-1960's. for the production of computers began to use electronic schemes of medium and high integration, which marked the beginning of the third stage in the development of computer technology and the emergence of computers of the third generation. New technical solutions based on microprocessors served as the basis for the creation of the first personal computers, the feature of which are small size and low cost. The production of computers acquires an industrial scale during this period, and the development of operating systems and software contributes to the increase in the number of users of computers and the expansion of its application areas. High functionality and affordable price ensured the introduction of computer technology in almost every business unit to solve such local problems as accounting and data processing.
The fourth generation of computers originated in the mid-1970s. and exists up to the present time. The basis of these computers are large and extra-large integrated microcircuits and microprocessors.
In parallel with the hardware, software was developed, both system and application, which in their evolution also passed several generations. The software of the first generation was the basic programming languages, which were owned only by specialists in the field of computer technology. Procedural-oriented languages Fortran, Cobol, Algol of the second generation of programming languages made it possible to join the development of applied programs of scientists and specialists from various fields of science and technology.
Fig. 3.2. Stages of the development of computer technology
Using advanced operating systems, database management systems and structured programming languages such as Pascal, are considered indicators of the third generation. The fourth generation epoch is characterized by the development and application of object-oriented languages, software for distributed computer systems, an improved graphical interface and an integrated programming environment, as well as advanced software tools for working with databases. The fifth generation is focused on processing knowledge, supporting network architectures and technologies.
The widespread use of computer technology, the need to exchange data between remote computers, have become the impetus for the creation and development of computer networks. At the initial stage, various non-standard devices were used, capable of providing connections only to the computers for which they were developed, and in the mid-1980s. the standard technologies of combining computers into the network - Ethernet, Arcnet, Token Ring, were established, which greatly simplified the process of creating network structures.
Improved and the model of the organization of computing and information processing. Since the 1950's. a model of centralized computing was used, when non-intelligent terminals were connected to a powerful computer, and users worked in split-time mode. Subsequently, the centralized model could include personal computers as intelligent terminals. In the 1980s. distribution has received a model of distributed computing. One of the most common versions of the distributed computing model is called the client-server architecture.
All the advances in the field of information technology were used in the management of business processes at enterprises and organizations (Figure 3.3).
Fig. 3.3. Stages of CIS development
At the first stage in the 1970s. systems conforming to the enterprise management standard MRP (material requirements planning) were introduced (Figure 3.4).
Fig. 3.4. Planning of enterprise needs in material resources
The introduction of systems that implement this methodology has made it possible to build output, planning and inventory management in a single business process. However, these systems did not take into account production capacities, their loading, labor resources, etc., and the concept of MRP II (manufacturing resources planning) arose.
In the future, and this concept has developed, and the end of XX century. is marked by the appearance of ERP-systems (enterprise resource planning) (Figure 3.5).
Fig. 3.5. Functional diagram of ERP-systems
The basis of ERP-systems is the principle of creating a single data warehouse containing all the business information accumulated by the organization in the course of conducting business operations, including financial information, data related to production management, personnel management and any other information. In addition, any part of the information that the organization has at its disposal is at the same time accessible to all employees who have the appropriate authority.
ERP-systems allow to reduce the cost of products due to the efficiency of operations, reduce costs and waste, speed up the output of products to the market, perform processing of orders in a closed loop, but focus more on the internal processes of the enterprise.
The last stage in the development of enterprise management systems was the standard CSRP (customer synchronized resource planning - resource planning synchronized with the needs of the buyer). It is based on the idea that to ensure competitiveness, an enterprise must plan changes in its work (changes in resource requirements) in synchronization with changes in the needs of customers. This standard distinguishes the focus on the consumer, and the foreground is the structuring of relations with external actors. Such systems have such functional units as CRM (customer relationship management, SCM (supply chain management), BI (business intelligence), CM (knowledge management).
Thus, the evolution of information and telecommunications technologies has made it possible at the present stage to create a business infrastructure that influences both corporate culture and business practices.
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