Information as a strategic resource of modern society
The concept of information as categories, data and knowledge
It is difficult to overestimate the role that information in our 21st century began to play. More than half of all working on the Earth are engaged in processes, the object of labor is information.
Information is created on a huge scale, stored and transmitted, processed and used. There was an industry of information, which is engaged in the production and consumption of information products and services. The intensity of the accumulation of information, provided by modern technical and software tools, whose capabilities were difficult to even imagine a few decades ago, is growing at an incredible rate.
According to rough estimates, as early as the end of the XX century. it was believed that the amount of useful scientific and technical information accumulated by mankind throughout its existence has doubled annually. Since then, the speed has increased, and it is obvious that human physical resources have long been insufficient to absorb all this huge amount of data.Often the rapid growth in the amount of new information is compared in capacity with an avalanche, it is said that an "information explosion" has occurred, which continues to grow and expand. The question arises correctly: is all this existing and constantly created information needed?
Of course, all information can not be of interest to an individual or even to an entire organization. First, some of the information becomes obsolete and, perhaps, will never be needed. At the same time, previously created information can be used as historical material or as data for comparison and analysis.
Secondly, the existing and newly created information refers to different areas of science, to different branches of business, can be oriented at different levels of education. Accordingly, it will be in demand by different consumers of information.
The problem is that, although we do not need all the accumulated information, when solving this problem it is necessary to find from time to time exactly those data that are required to solve a particular problem. Experience shows that at the present level of development of our society in solving any more or less serious task it is impossible to do without using certain volumes of accumulated useful scientific and technical information that is to be found, transmitted, processed.
The importance of information in the development of society was reflected in the appearance of the term "information resources", which was introduced in the last century at one of the congresses of UNESCO. To information resources refers to the accumulated information recorded on tangible media, which can be stored, transmitted, used. These are products of intellectual labor: patents, technologies, software, databases, knowledge bases, etc. Unlike other types of resources, information resources do not decrease with time.Each state owns certain resources: natural, energy, human, financial, etc. Now there is another type of national resources, which is not only no less important, but largely determines the country's potential, the success of its further development. In the information society, information resources become one of the main resources for development.
Under the conditions of globalization, the interdependence of the state as a whole, individual industries, organizations from a multitude of factors of an economic, legal, natural nature and a number of others is growing. Timely obtaining of information, important for making decisions at any level, gives a significant advantage. The possession of the necessary information, its effective use allow to receive a gain in reduction of time, materials, labor, power, financial and other resources. Thus, the availability of the necessary information resources leads to savings of various types of other resources.
The development of information technology, necessary for the accumulation and effective use of information resources, becomes a strategic factor in ensuring national security. The National Security Strategy of the United States until 2020, approved by Presidential Decree No. 537 of May 12, 2009, states that national security forces, together with civil society institutions to counter threats to economic security, should aim at "developing the information and communication industry telecommunication technologies, computer facilities, radio electronics, telecommunications equipment and software. "
Without the development of informatization, which is understood as the creation of information technology and technologies, communication facilities, production of information products and services, it is impossible to achieve the integration of the national economy into the world economic space. In order for national producers to be able to compete with foreign ones on the United States and international markets, it is necessary to create and maintain an information infrastructure that allows them to have equal information opportunities to present and promote their products. Thus, the development of information infrastructure, the accumulation and effective use of information resources become a factor of survival, vitality, economic stability.
In accordance with the value of information and information resources, the economy of modern society is called the information economy. What is information?
The category of information is no less a complex philosophical category than the categories of space, time, matter, energy. Various scientists have addressed the study of its content, but a single definition of information has not yet been developed.
The most probable approach to the definition of the information concept, proposed by the American scientist K. Shannon, according to which information - is the measure of elimination of uncertainty regarding the outcome of this or that event . Information is the opposite of uncertainty, or entropy (entropy is a quantity used in thermodynamics as a measure of disorder). The less entropy, the more information, and vice versa. Information contains only such data that reduce uncertainty.
Let the random discrete value X be one of the values with the probability , , and has its own information:
Then the entropy will be equal to
This means that the entropy of the event X is equal to the sum of all products of the relative frequencies of occurrence of the event r multiplied by the binary logarithms of the relative frequencies of occurrence of the event r taken with the opposite sign. The base of the logarithm 2 is used for convenience when working with information in binary notation.
According to K. Shannon, the amount of information is equal to the reduced uncertainty and for an equal probability of events is calculated by the formula
where To is the constant corresponding to the choice of the unit of measure.
The minimum information is contained in the message about the occurrence of one of two equally probable events. In this case, the relative frequency of each event of the rain 1/2, respectively, the minimum amount of information, or one unit of information, will be equal to
Such a minimum unit of information is called a bit (from an English bit - a piece, a piece or a binary digit - a binary digit).
We call information a variety of information about objectively existing processes and phenomena. There are also terms: messages, data. Are they all synonymous and can they be replaced by the term information ?
If you refer to the Federal Law "On Information, Information Technology and Information Protection", then information in it is defined as "information (messages, data) regardless of the form of their presentation." Consequently, all these terms are equivalent.
However, you can see certain nuances that differentiate terms from each other. Messages can be presented in different languages, transmitted by different means. The same message may not be the same in information for different recipients of information, i.e. Contain new data for some and known data for others. Accordingly, the information for different recipients from the same message will be different.
The clarity in the application of terms helps to appeal to their etymology. The word data was derived from the Latin "datum" (which means data, facts), information - from the Latin "information"; (explanation). Data is the source material, the source for obtaining information. From them it is necessary to extract information. Information does not exist by itself, it exists if there is an interaction between the data and their recipient. There must be a source of information and a recipient of information. Information is generated from the data if the data is received and received by the recipient, moreover, if they are new to the recipient, previously unknown.
Based on the information, knowledge are accumulated - systematized information, tested by practice, which can be used to solve problems. In the information society, knowledge becomes one of the most important factors in the development of each person, the whole society.
The economy often uses the so-called technological approach to the definition of information. According to him, information can be viewed as an object of collection, transmission, storage, processing and use.
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