Information as an object of study of legal informatics
Different interpretations of the concept of "information"
The main object of study of many sciences, and computer science, including, is information. The current level of development of scientific knowledge does not yet allow us to give an accurate and complete definition of this fundamental concept. With the development of our understanding of the world in which we live, with the development of science, the content of the concept "information" is expanding and deepening.
The original word for this term is the Latin word informatio (exposition, interpretation, explanation), and it entered the United States language, according to P. Ya. Chernykh, in the era of Peter I.
At the general, everyday level, the concept of "information" most often interpreted as information, messages transmitted from person to person and informing about some phenomena, events, processes, etc.
However, this does not exhaust the entire content of the concept information & quot ;. So, there is information about the surrounding reality that a person receives through his senses, and it does not in all cases emanate from another person (ambient temperature, terrain, time of day, etc.).
H. Wiener in his work "Cybernetics or Control and Communication in Animal and Machine" defines information as "a designation of the content we draw from the outside world in the process of adapting to it and bringing it into line with our thinking."
We see that information is defined through the category "content of the outside world" and directly linked with the person, his thinking and the process of adaptation of man to the phenomena and events of the external world. In other words, Wiener argues that information outside of human consciousness does not exist.
Many modern concepts about the content of the concept "information" are connected with the person and his ability to think: "Information is a message that informs about the state of affairs, about the state of something."
In all cases, when it comes to information, one should understand what is said about information that is meaningful, transformed by human consciousness. According to the Dictionary of VI Dal, the word intelligence comes from reduce & quot ;, i.e. learn, get information. It is also synonymous with the words knowledge & quot ;, news & quot ;, notice.
Identification of information with information or facts that can theoretically be obtained and assimilated, i.e. transformed into knowledge, is the essence of anthropocentric approach to the definition of the concept of "information". This approach is currently used most widely and, in particular, in the United States legislation.
Information is understood as "information (messages, data) regardless of the form of their presentation."
Until recently, the anthropocentric approach was dominant in scientific research. However, in connection with the widespread introduction of computer technology, its shortcomings increasingly make themselves felt.
First, the approach to information only as information does not allow to adequately interpret information processes in such objects as computer programs, computer networks, artificial intelligence systems, systems that are oriented in a state of uncertainty. Here, the processes of obtaining, transforming, transmitting information can take place without a stage of comprehension by a person.
Secondly, within the anthropocentric approach it is impossible to find an adequate explanation of the genetic information of wildlife.
In this connection, there was a need to change the interpretation of the concept of information. It was expanded and included the exchange of information not only between man and man, but also between man and machine, machine and machine, the exchange of signals in the animal and vegetable world, the transmission of signs from the cell to the cell.
The most rapid and very fruitful development of the problem of penetrating the essence of the concept of "information" received within the framework of information theory and cybernetics.
The theory of information begins with the work of K. Shannon, published in the late 40's. XX century, in which the information was understood not to any messages, but only those that reduce the uncertainty of the recipient of this message. Uncertainty, according to K. Shannon, exists when there is a choice of one of several possibilities. In Shannon's theory, the idea of a code and an information transfer channel was put forward, and the amount of information characterizing this message was determined by the set of all possible messages and their probabilities, regardless of their semantic content.
In the early 1960's. Yu. A. Schrader attempted to develop methods for determining how the wealth of the composition and the structural nature of the information accumulated in the object affect its reception and the effectiveness of the processing for use. This was due to the tasks of optimizing management. So there was a semantic theory of information developed by Yu. A. Schreider, which differs from the information theory of K. Shannon in its initial propositions. In Shreider's theory, the emphasis is on the properties of the receiver that receives and stores information, and on the evaluation of its semantic (semantic) meaning, and the question of the channel of information transfer goes to the background. The basic idea of the semantic information theory is that the semantic information perceived by the given system can be estimated from the degree of change of the own semantic information contained in the system due to the accumulation of external information.
In order to receive any information from external sources at all, the receiver system must have some minimum "knowledge stock", which is denoted by the term "thesaurus", or, in other words, the system must contain some initial, threshold internal information. If this threshold information allows, the system is able to expand its thesaurus, extracting from the outside all the more extensive information, up to the maximum available for it, when its internal information (thesaurus) is enriched to the optimum level. The further perception of information becomes increasingly redundant for the system (ever less significant), and finally it already knows everything that is available to it, its internal information (thesaurus) becomes saturated. Shreider explains this scheme using the example of human perception of information: if, for example, the source of external information is a textbook on probability theory, then a junior schoolboy will not extract any information from him (his initial thesaurus is not sufficient for this), a high school student will already extract some information, and the student who studies this course is the maximum.
In this regard, we can distinguish the following types of information, its properties and features of their interaction.
Internal Information is information as a characteristic of the organization of any system, which is called "structural information."
Structural (or related) information is inherent in all objects of animate and inanimate nature of natural and artificial origin and arises as a result of selection, fixing and fixing in the system in the form of certain structural changes in its positive experience of interaction with the external environment. A vivid example of this can be the experience with the flower clock, which was designed by the well-known biologist Karl Linnaeus on the basis of sequential opening (closing) of flowers of various plants from 6 am to 6 pm. This was preceded by the studies of the French astronomer Jean-Jacques d'Ortu de Méraya more than 250 years ago, which, hiding the flower of the heliotrope in a dark room, found out that there, too, the cycle of opening (closing) of the flower corresponded exactly to the change of day and night. He came to the conclusion that the rhythms of the plant are regulated by some kind of internal mechanism.
External information is information as a means of organizing any system, what is defined as "relative information", "operational (or working) information", closely related to reflection (if in one object there are changes reflecting the effects of another object, the first object becomes the carrier of information about the second object). A vivid example of external information and its impact on biological systems - the rhythms of solar activity, lunar rhythms, etc. In the animal world, four types of electromagnetic signaling are suggested: signal-commands providing coordinated execution of movement in flocks of birds, fish, herds of mammals, insects; guide signals, over which animals find each other at great distances; coordinating signals that determine the coordination of physiological processes and behavior in groups and communities; synchronizing signals that provide synchronization of processes both inside the organism, and in the community and group.
During the half-century since that time, many works have appeared in which various approaches to the definition of the concept of "information" are being explored from the standpoint of different sciences, various scientific schools, and even different ideological settings.
Information is the transfer of diversity (WR Ashby).
Information is originality, novelty (S. Mole).
Information is the probability of choice (TM Yaglom).
Information is a reflected diversity (AD Ursul).
Information is a measure of the complexity of structures (S. Mole).
Indeed, the more complex an object or process, the more information it contains and the more information it needs to describe it.
Q. D. Elkin proposed the following definition of information: "Information is a probabilistic category used in the process of assessing the situation and making an informed decision."
Academician VM Glushkov gave the following definition of information: "Information in its most general sense is a measure of the heterogeneity of the distribution of matter and energy in space and time, the extent of the changes that accompany all the processes in the world."
In the encyclopaedia edited by Prokhorov written: information (from the Latin informatio - clarification statement.) From the middle of the XX century. general scientific concept, including the exchange of information between people, a person and machine, automatic and automatic, the exchange of signals in the animal and plant world, the transfer of signs from the cell to the cell, from the body to the body; one of the basic concepts of cybernetics
Information is treated as a specific portion of order .
Information is a measure of the choice of a self-organizing system.Information, according to II Yuzvishin, is the generalization-fundamental substance of the single code space of the universe, including air, water, earth, solar and other light-bearing rays, fields, their tracks and the entire spectrum of cosmic radiations, materialized and dematerialized environments, and expressed through mass, speed, energy and other forms manifested in the process of materialization and dematerialization. "
Information is a universal substance that permeates all spheres of human activity, which serves as a vehicle for knowledge and information, a tool for communication, understanding and cooperation, and the establishment of stereotypes of thinking and behavior (UNESCO).
The existence of such a number of definitions characterizes information as a general scientific category, as a "universal substance," which is difficult to define precisely because of its universality.
Therefore, today, the nondeterministic approach to the definition of the concept of information is quite widespread. It consists in refusing to define information on the grounds that it is fundamental, such as matter and energy.
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