INFORMATION COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES, COMPUTER NETWORKS: INTERNET...

INFORMATION COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES

COMPUTER NETWORKS: THE INTERNET AND THE WORLD WEB

After studying the material in this chapter, the student must:

know

• the history of the invention of the Internet and the World Wide Web (WWW);

• the emergence and main stages of the development of the United States segment of the Internet - Runet;

• basic concepts and terms of the Internet;

be able to

• correctly use the basic concepts and terms of the Internet;

• apply the acquired knowledge about the structure of the Web, its functionality;

• create a simple web document using HTML;

own

• the main features of legal regulation of copyright in relation to the information resources of the Internet;

• Basic skills in the correct use of different types of Internet content.

The invention of the Internet and the World Wide Web

Invention of the Internet

The Internet, invented around 1969, was literally the brainchild of the Cold War between the USSR and the United States. During this period, the US military department launched a special information and computer project DARPANET ( Defense Advanced Research Project Agency) , which immediately received priority funding. The goal of the project was to create a reliable connection between remote computers for data exchange and settlements using telephone line resources. Such a distributed computer network would preserve the computing capabilities of the US military's computer fleet in the event of an atomic attack by United States missiles on US territory. As the Americans themselves wrote, initially the Internet was a network for managing military infrastructure in conditions that should have arisen after the atomic explosion. The development of such a network was entrusted to the leading American university centers - the University of California at Los Angeles ( University of California in Los Angeles) , Stanford Research Center ( Stanford Research Institute) , The University of Utah ( University of Utah) and the University of California in Santa Barbara ( California Stale University in Santa Barbara) . According to the name of the project, the computer network created was called ARPANET ( Advanced Research Projects Agency Ne twork) , and in 1969 the computer capacities of all four university centers were successfully combined with an extremely effective means of information exchange, called the Internet, or the connection between computer networks.

For reference

The birthday of the Internet. The first session of Internet communication took place on October 29, 1969 between the University of California in Los Angeles and the Stanford Research Center, located at a distance of 640 km from each other. Scientists for the first time managed to send only three characters LOG, after which the network ceased to function. LOG should be the word login (login command). In working condition, the system was returned on the same day, and the next attempt was successful. Therefore, this date can be considered the birthday of the Internet.

Very soon it became clear that the productivity of the created means of information exchange is so great that it is enough to use no more than 10-15% of its capabilities to solve military problems, so it was decided to connect to the Internet other American universities, as well as colleges and other educational institutions. This proved to be a very productive solution, as it stimulated the rapid and effective development of hardware and, in particular, computer software. For example, in 1971, a program appeared that was widely spread, providing the exchange of text files between computers in the network, i.e. the service that received the name of the email (English electronic mail , or e -mail ) .

The symbolic connection fee, coupled with the cheap use of telephone lines, ensured the widespread use of unlimited Internet access not only to universities and schools, but also to apartments and offices, i.e. to any point from which a telephone connection could be established. There were numerous professional organizations of a new type - companies that provide Internet access to everyone who wants access to the network infrastructure. In 1973, the Internet for the first time became a transnational computer network - computers connected to the US segment of the network through a transatlantic telephone cable were located in the UK and Norway.

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