INFORMATION. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES
As a result of the development of this section, the student must:
• concepts and definitions of information, economic information;
• Information presentation forms;
• Measures and units for measuring the amount and volume of information;
• a general characteristic of the basic information technology;
• the current state and prospects for the development of information and communication technologies;
• the main economic laws of the development of information technology;
be able to
• describe the properties of information;
• carry out the classification of information;
• describe the basic information technology at the conceptual, logical and physical levels;
• Economically competently analyze and assess the current state of information technology;
• Basic methods and technologies of information management;
• standard means of basic information processes and technologies.
INFORMATION. SIGNALS. DATA
Concepts and definitions of information
Any science begins with strict definitions, its concepts and terms used, for example, such as information technology, information systems, information economy, information resources, etc. In all these concepts, so often used in recent times, there is the word information. Therefore, it would be quite reasonable to begin the presentation of the foundations of information technology with an accurate definition of one of the basic terms - information.
To define any concept means to express it through certain earlier concepts. The specificity of the situation is that information is one of the original categories of the universe, and, consequently, the definition of "information in general" can not be reduced to simpler, source terms.
As early as the last century in Europe, the term information was interpreted from the preposition in - in and forme and meant something ordering, formalizing. Then the informer called the home teacher, and the "information" Doctrine, instruction. At present his interpretation is diverse and multifaceted. Below are just a few of them.
As for private interpretations of the concept of "information", it should be noted that they differ significantly in various scientific disciplines, in engineering and at the everyday level. Ambiguity is overcome by the fact that in each narrow discipline is given its own (private) interpretation of the term, taking into account the specific features of a particular domain.
Philosophers-materialists argued that information is defined as the content (essence) of reflection, the main facet (aspect, aspect) of reflection, the reflection invariant, reflected diversity, finally, the way the existence of one system through another. When the concept of reflection was generalized to a category reflecting the universal property of matter, new forms of reflection were revealed in both living and non-living systems, and in societies. Thus, it became possible to consider as reflective not only the processes of obtaining new knowledge, but also the exchange of this knowledge between living beings. Such an approach made it possible to study information processes as reflective, and reflective as information.
According to H. Wiener : "Information is information, not matter and not energy." From this it follows that the concept of information is speculative, i.e. existing in the imagination of man, abstraction.
It is interesting to say To. Shannon that the information is a removed uncertainty or the result of a choice from possible alternatives.
A. N. Kolmogorov determined the algorithmic complexity of information as the minimum length of a computational algorithm that could reproduce a given sequence of data.
From the point of view A. D. Ursula : "Information is a reflected diversity. Information does not include all the content of reflection, but only an aspect that is related to diversity, the difference and not only diversity but also monotony can be reflected. Reflection - "reproduction of properties, sides, features that make up the content of the reflected object".
And. I. Yuzvishii offers to interpret information as a "fundamental generalization-unified, initially infinite legal process of resonant-cellular, frequency-quantum and nonsingular self-relationship, self-reflection, relationship, interaction, interconversion, energy and motion (in space and time) on the basis of materialization and dematerialization in vacuum atmospheres and the motherospheres of the Universe ".
M. And. Sets treats the concept of information as an empty set, because information can not be identified. "No one has yet seen either as a substance, or as a property of this mysterious information & lt; ... & gt ;. Why? Yes, because it does not exist in nature, as there are no fluids, phlogiston, ether. "
The modern concept of information began to be used in science in the middle of the 20th century, and according to the reference literature it is understood by information:
information, messages about something that people are exchanging;
signals, pulses, images, circulating in technical (cybernetic) devices;
• quantitative measure to eliminate uncertainty (entropy), measure the organization of the system;reflection of diversity in any objects and processes of inanimate and living nature.
There are other definitions of information, but all of them, as noted above, are often incompatible with each other. For example, information is called an abstract concept, a physical property, a function of self-managed systems. Information can be objective and subjective, material and ideal, it is both a thing, a property, and an attitude. To give a more precise definition, information needs to be defined as a philosophical category.1.
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