Information nature of management of economic objects
Management is a purposeful process that is performed continuously in time and space, requiring in-depth analysis, development and setting of the goals of the system (object) operation. The more accurate the result of the functioning of the system corresponds to the goal, the higher the quality of management.
Any system is a set of interrelated objects organized in a certain way into a single whole and opposed to the environment, i.e. the system can be represented as a collection of entities (objects) and connections between them. The term system denotes both real and abstract objects and is widely used for the formation of other concepts, for example, the banking system, the information system, the circulatory system, the political system, the system of equations, etc. Any non-elementary object can be considered as an element of a larger system - supersystems, or supersystems to which the object in question belongs). The most common definitions of the concept management the following:
1) determination of the purpose and result of its achievement by means of necessary and sufficient methods, means and impacts;
2) the function of organized systems of diverse nature (biological, social, technical), which ensures the preservation of their specific structure, maintenance of the mode of operation, implementation of their programs and objectives of activities;
3) the creation and implementation of influences that ensure the desired functioning of the object, leading to a specific goal;
4) the process of organizing a targeted impact on some part of the environment, called the control object, as a result of which the needs of the subject interacting with this object are satisfied;
5) the process of forming goals and ways to achieve them;
6) the use of cause-effect relationships, in which the behavior of the system leads to the desired result (the system achieves the goal or solves the problem);
7) impact on the object, improving the functioning or development of this object;
8) the process of targeted action of the management subject on the management object to achieve certain performance results.
The basic properties of systems, closely related to the objectives of their functioning, include the following.
• Purposefulness - the system has an objective function (or destination function) and the priority of the system's goals in front of the goals of its elements.
• Synergy. The maximum effect of the functioning of the system is achieved only in the case of the greatest effectiveness of the joint functioning of all its elements (subsystems) to achieve a common goal.
• Emergence. The manifestation in the system of integral properties that are not inherent in its individual elements, the fundamental irreducibility of the property of the system to the sum of the properties of its constituent components (nonadditivity).
• Alternative. Multiplicity of ways of functioning and development (organization or self-organization) of the system.
• Structural. The ability to decompose the system into subsystems, establish connections between them.
• Hierarchy. Each component of the system can be considered as a system, and the system itself can also be considered as an element of some supersystem (super-system).
• Communicative. The existence of a complex system of communication with the environment in the form of a hierarchy.
• Adaptability. Striving for a state of stable equilibrium (homeostasis), which involves adapting the system parameters to the changing parameters of the external environment (however, the instability is not always dysfunctional for the system, it can also serve as a condition for dynamic development).
• Reliability. The ability of the system to maintain its level of performance in established conditions for a set period of time.
• Isolation. A property that determines the existence of boundaries with the environment.
Management of economic objects is carried out by the systems of organizational (organizational-economic) management ( managerial control system ) , t .e. control systems, the object of which, unlike the control systems of technological processes, are not technical devices, but first of all people, human collectives, and the management process is reduced to the regulation of relations between people in the process of their production and economic activities.
The goal of the system of organizational and economic management is to ensure maximum economic efficiency of its functioning within a specific field of activity, i.e. achieving a maximum in the difference between income and costs (costs).
Any economic object (enterprise, bank, organization, etc.) can be considered as a system whose purpose of functioning is connected with profit, release of demanded products and (or) services, formation of a reserve for ensuring further growth, etc. Model economic object as a system is determined by the totality of the various elements and relations between them that characterize the information relations within the economic entity (Figure 1.2).
The management of such a system is a complex dynamic process that coordinates the production and economic activities of the object and all its subsystems (divisions) in time. The process of system management, which consists in changing the state of the control object, can be represented as a set of information processes linking the main components of the system (control object and control system) to the external (surrounding) environment, since management is always based on the exchange and processing of information.
Within the control system, information flows circulate, characterized by the presence of direct and feedback. Information on the external environment (normative and legislative acts, outlining the scope of the enterprise's activities, targets, etc.) is received at the entrance of the management entity.
Direct communication from the subject to the management object is a flow of directive information formed by the administrative apparatus in accordance with the objectives of management and information about the economic situation that has developed in the external environment.
Feedback from the object to the subject of management is the flow of reporting information generated by the management object -
Fig. 1.2. The structure of the organizational management system with economic information system (EIS): cybernetic approach
tion and containing information on the implementation of decisions taken and the degree of influence of the external environment on the internal economic situation (for example, delays in payment, violation of the supply of energy, changes in weather conditions, etc.).
The central place in the information space of the economic object management system is the economic information system , which provides search, processing, storage and delivery of information at the request of users.>
Based on external information, the management entity (management apparatus) plans the results of the operation of the control object, the planned information about which is communicated through direct communication, including through the channels of the information system. In the environment of the environment, the management entity generates and transmits, by feedback, reporting information on the results of operations.
Based on the analysis of the administrative apparatus (the subject of management), management information is formed, which allows eliminating the discrepancy between the planned and reporting information.
The control system implements the following important management functions:
• the planning function - determines the optimal ways to achieve the goals of the functioning of the economic system for different periods of time (a function through which the management goal is ideally realized);
• accounting function - displays the current status of the control object as a result of performing business operations;
• The analysis function - is connected with the study of the process of functioning of the economic object and determines the deviations of the actual indicators from the planned ones with the establishment of the causes of these deviations;
• Monitoring function - is associated with the detection of deviations of actual data from planned data in the process of achieving the objectives;
• The regulatory function is based on the operational management of all business processes at the site in order to identify reserves and make optimal management decisions about the withdrawal of the control object to a planned trajectory.
Information systems of various purposes (banking, stock market, insurance, tax, accounting, statistical, etc.) can be used as part of the EIS. •