Information processing technologies
During the information process, the information circulating at the enterprise or in the organization is subjected to one or another processing depending on the nature of their activities. In the place of origin, incoming and outgoing, internal and external information is extracted. During processing, the information can be primary and secondary, intermediate and result, while the processed data is converted from one type to another. According to the development of the information society, the labor costs for data processing are increasing and require the improvement of the applied technologies.
Technology ( gr techne - skill, logos - teaching, mastery) - a body of knowledge about the methods and means of production processes, under which the necessary qualitative change of the processed objects.
Information technology is a process that uses a combination of means and methods of collecting, processing, and transmitting data to obtain new quality information about the state of an object, process or phenomenon. A similar definition is given in Art. 2 of the Federal Law No. 149-FZ "On information, information technology and information protection": information technology - processes, methods of searching, collecting, storing, processing, providing, disseminating information and ways to implement such processes and methods.
The purpose of information technology - the production of information for its analysis by a person and the subsequent decision-making on the implementation of any action. In a narrower sense, information technology is a set of clearly defined, purposeful human actions for processing information on a computer. The technological process of information processing consists of stages, operations and specific actions of the operator performing data processing. In the structure of possible operations with data, we can distinguish the following:
• data collection and their formalization, i.e. reduction to the same form;
• Filtering and sorting;
• processing and transformation of data in accordance with the task;
• Data archiving, i.e. organization of data storage in a compact, convenient and easily accessible form;
• data protection - a set of measures aimed at preventing loss of data and their modification;
• Transport of data, i.e. reception and transmission of data between remote participants of the information process.
The history of the development of information technology includes several stages related to cardinal changes in the sphere of information processing.
The first stage is connected with the invention of writing. Means of collecting, storing and processing information here were pen, ink, paper and books, the efficiency of information processing at this stage was extremely low. The invention of printing in the middle of the XVI century. significantly increased the efficiency of information processing, there were tools such as a board and a printing press.
To replace the manual technology At the end of the 19th century, with the advent of the telegraph, telephone, radio, came the "mechanical" technology that allows you to quickly transfer information.
Creating electric typewriters, television, copiers, tape recorders by the middle of the 20th century. led to the emergence of electrical information technologies.
From the second half of XX century. and with the appearance of a computer, and then a personal computer began a new stage in the development of information technology - "electronic" technology.
The electronic computer is a universal device for input, output, accumulation, processing and transmission of information for solving computing and information problems. The term computer is used in the same sense as the term "computer". A computer is an electronic machine, because it consists of electronic circuits, and a computer, because it processes information in digital form, performing calculations, numerical arithmetic and logical operations without human intervention. The digital form of representing any data provides the computer with such properties as universality, suitability for a variety of tasks.
For the first time the project of an analytical machine (computer) in the input device, memory device, processor, output device was proposed in the XIX century. By Charles Babidge. He also first put forward the idea of programmatic control of such a machine. Further development of this idea has found its continuation in the construction of the first electronic computers. The operation of the computer was based on a binary number system for representing numbers and placing the control program in a memory device. The first computers were developed in 1943-1947. in the USA and England, in continental Europe the first "small electronic calculating machine" (MESM) was established in the USSR in 1948-1951.
Types of the computer
Electronic computers are usually classified according to a number of characteristics.
The physical representation of the processed information is distinguished:
• Continuous analog computers that work with information presented in continuous (analog) form, i.e. in the form of a continuous series of values of some physical quantity (most often an electrical voltage);
• digital computers that work with information in a discrete form (digital);
• hybrid computers of combined action that combine the advantages of analog and digital computers and are used to solve problems of managing complex high-speed technical complexes.
In the stages of creating computers, several generations of the development of computer technology are singled out, which were formed during the 20th century.
The first generation belongs to machines created in the 1950s. based on electron tubes. At that time, domestic machines were developed: MESM (small electronic counting machine), BESM (large electron-counting machine), "Arrow", Ural series, M-20. The main application of the first computers was the implementation of scientific and technical calculations.
After a decade, computers appeared on discrete semiconductor devices (transistors). The second generation of computers was used for technical and economic calculations.
Machines of the third generation appeared in the 1970s. and were developed on semiconductor integrated circuits with small and medium degree of integration (hundreds, thousands of transistors in one package). This generation of computers began to be used in the management and conduct of economic calculations.
The fourth generation of computers was formed in the 1980s. on the basis of large and very large integrated circuits - microprocessors (tens of thousands - millions of transistors in a single crystal). The purpose of computers of this generation was already the presentation of information and wider use in management.
So, the 1990s. are characterized by the creation of a computer with many tens of parallel working microprocessors, which allow to build effective systems for processing knowledge. This generation is characterized by the use of personal computers, telecommunications data processing, computer networks, extensive use of database management systems, elements of intelligent behavior of data processing systems and devices.
The creation of optoelectronic computers with mass parallelism and neural structure refers to the beginning of the XXI century. It is assumed that in next-generation computers there will be a qualitative transition from data processing to knowledge processing.