Without formulating the fundamental comprehensive definition of information at the moment, we will try to disclose the essence by describing those properties of information that humanity has approached and realized in its development.
1. The information is ideal. "The ideal is something that is not in nature, but what is constructed by a person in accordance with his needs, interests, goals that are to be realized in practice." While the information is in the memory of a person, it is ideal. And transferring it to a physical medium (writing on paper, on computer storage media, etc.) does not mean that information materializes. Only the carrier of information is material. The information itself is still ideal, because it remained in the memory of the creator or the person who was acquainted with it.
2. Continuity of information - without developed continuity there is no developed structure of the development processes, because in them then there are little-allocated and differentiated phenomena of "historicity" and "inner direction", which, in particular, distinguish higher forms of self-development.
3. The inexhaustibility of information - information can have an unlimited number of users, be used an unlimited number of times and at the same time remain unchanged.
4. Speaking about the mass character of information, two aspects stand out: a qualitative aspect reveals the mass nature of information as public information, common to all; quantitative - as information distributed to a wide network of consumers, users of information.
5. Transformability of information means the independence of the content of information from the form of fixation and the way of presentation.
6. Universality of information - the content of information can be anything and everything.
7. Scattering of information - distortion, loss of information during its transmission and storage.
8. The ability to compress information (both syntactic and semantic) and transport at very high speeds.
9. Quality of information is considered as a set of information properties that characterize the degree of its correspondence to the needs of users. Speaking about the quality of information, we can distinguish the following properties:
a) the adequacy of information. Adequacy is understood as the degree to which the information received by the consumer corresponds to what the author has invested in its content;
b) completeness of information. The completeness of information is understood as its sufficiency for making a decision. It depends both on the completeness of the data, and on the availability of necessary methods;
c) redundancy of information. This property, the utility of which we feel very often. Often the redundancy of information is purely psychological perceived by the person as its quality, because it allows him to lessen his attention and less to tire;
d) accessibility of information - this is a measure of the ability to get this or that information;
e) relevance - this is the degree of correspondence of information to the current moment of time;
e) the value of information is the degree of its importance, the need for making information decisions. Value is not a purely natural property of information, but is formed as a result of the object-practical interaction of the object (information) and the subject (the user). Value is what a person needs for his practically cognitive activity, and practice contributes to the objectivity of evaluations.
Information as an object of scientific research and study implies the allocation of semantic, linguistic, pragmatic and technical aspects.
In the semantic aspect , studies are aimed at solving the problem of the accuracy of transmitting the meaning of messages using coded signals.
With the linguistic analysis of information, the research is aimed at identifying the sign system necessary to effectively perceive and understand information when exchanging it between systems.
In social systems, alphabet and number means serve to express a certain meaning of any information, its fixation and subsequent logical use. It is on their basis that words, word-combinations, sentences, logical text, etc. are formed. This allows you to logically draw information in a form that is suitable for perception. There are other organizational forms of information expression besides the documented information: sound, light, biological energy, but all of them are perceived by the human logical system through a written sign system, since the sound recording form is still based on the alphanumeric system of information representation.
In the pragmatic aspect of the study, the value for the consumer of the received message is determined in terms of the effect of this message on the subsequent behavior of the consumer. This approach is called managerial, taking into account the processes of the functioning of the system, the direction of its movement under the influence of the information received and the degree of achievement of its goals.
In technical aspects problems of accuracy, reliability, message transmission rate, technical means and methods of building signaling channels, their noise immunity, etc. are studied. This approach is called organizational, characterizing the device and the degree of perfection of the control system itself in terms of its reliability, survivability, the completeness of the functions being implemented, the perfection of the structure, and the cost-effectiveness of implementing management processes in the system.
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