Information search on the Internet, Searches - Informatics...

Information search on the Internet

Information search is a sequence of operations aimed at providing information to interested parties. The search is performed in four steps:

1) the definition of the information needs and the holder of the information array;

2) the wording of the request;

3) retrieving information from the information array;

4) getting acquainted with the information received and evaluating the results of the search.

Information search in the aggregate of information resources, document arrays, databases, knowledge is realized with the help of automated information retrieval systems.

Search Sites

The Internet is the first and only information object in which the search for the entire volume of information accumulated by mankind at the moment is potentially possible. Information in the hypertext view grows by several million web pages a day. In principle, a global search is possible, but from 30 to 70% of the information placed on the Internet and entire resources are closed for search engines by a password input (confidential) or dynamically generated by the server only on the basis of the request. However, even with these restrictions, the search is very effective.

In a conventional library, an information array implies the presence of a classification and specialization of knowledge by area. There is no global catalog of all resources and the editor in the Internet, some of the information is of poor quality.

So it's easy to waste time. However, there are tools and methods to conduct an effective search.

There are two basic methods for discovering an information resource on the Internet:

a) a gradual transition from the site to the site by hyperlinks, which, in your opinion, can lead to the necessary information, and their viewing;

b) Search.

The main means of information search on the Internet are (Table 9.1);

• search and metasearch systems (search for specific documents);

• Indexed catalogs (search for topical sites but the structure of the headings);

• addresses of popular search engines and Internet directories;

• ratings (tops) of the most visited resources;

• thematic links lists (thematic portals-pointers);

• Network encyclopedias and reference books with definitions of concepts and reference data.

Table 9.1

Search Engines

Yandex (yandex.ru)

Search engine and directory

Rambler (rambler.ru)

Search engine and Tor 100 directory

Google (google.com)

International Search and Catalog

Mail.ru

Search engine and directory

Bing! (bing.com)

Search Engine

Nigma (nigmaru)

Metasearch System

Search Engine on the Internet is a special website where you can make a request and get links to documents and sites that match the query. The search system may include several powerful servers (in the Google system - more than 10,000 computers).

The interface of the search page provides the ability to formulate in the line a text request, send an ex, look through the list of links received in the response and go to their addresses.

The search engine software consists of three components: the search robot, the system index, the classifier.

Search Engine - A parser that continuously visits web addresses on the Internet ( crawls like a spider on a web); scans and examines the contents of documents, indexes words from the text and writes them into the database (updates it).

Index database is the table created by the results of the search: word - the address of the document where the word meets & quot ;. The search robot periodically updates the database, finding new materials, removing the broken links.

When a visitor makes a request, the addresses are searched not on the Internet, but in the prepared database of the server.

Classifier is a program that: a) processes a user request; b) finds and extracts, using the index of words from the database, links that meet the query criteria; c) displays a list of references to found documents in descending order of relevance (determines their correspondence, weight, importance and sorting), the top of the list are the most suitable addresses.

Particularly powerful search engines take into account the popularity of the site in terms of the number of visits and links to it from other sites, evaluate pages by the number of other important pages linked. Ranking algorithms for ranking may differ, the site may rank fifth in one rating and 30 in other.

Search engines in the list of links can offer not only a direct transition to the document and its site, but also text with the selection of words stated in the request, as well as a saved copy of the main text of the document from its archive (without drawings and hyperlinks, sometimes without formatting ). The copy stored in the archive of the search engine is convenient because it loads faster, you can get a document that is not available on the source server, or convert the format of doc, pdf to HTML.

Meta-search system is a search system that does not have its own database, but has the software capabilities to query data from several other search sites, analyze the result, following its own processing algorithm, provide a consolidated result.

Some directories are contained in search engines and allow searching by both keywords and the hierarchical tree of partitions. If you need to find a specific document, then the catalog is ineffective. Sometimes part of the links in thematic collections does not work.

It is useful to refer to tops (lists of the most visited sites on a particular topic). High traffic to the site indicates a quality content, service.

Large search engines and Internet resource catalogs have become portals - they offer a variety of information, news, additional services: free e-mail, a place to host web pages, support forums.

Internet search engines in the first positions of the list of resources offered at the request of the visitor, place the so-called paid and "managed results" and commercial advertising of goods and services of various companies, artificially raising their rating. Advertisers buy the right of contextual advertising on specific topics of requests. The paid links are not necessarily different from the usual search results.

thematic pictures

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