Information systems and technologies
General By system is understood a complex object, which is a collection of heterogeneous elements that are integrated into a single whole to achieve the goal. The information system - is an interrelated collection of tools, methods and personnel used to store, process and deliver information in the interest of achieving the stated goal.
Information technology - is the process of collecting and processing primary information for obtaining an information product and transferring it to the consumer. Information product is output information of a new quality about the state of an object, process or phenomenon. The purpose of information technology is to obtain information for its analysis by a person and making decisions on how to perform an action on it. To identify the features of information technology and technology of material production, you can use Table. 1.1.
Technology Components for Production
Collection of data or primary information
Preparation of raw materials and materials
Data processing and obtaining of its results (output information)
Production of a tangible product
Transfer of output information to the user for making decisions based on it
Sales of manufactured products to consumers
The technological process of information processing can be considered as a set of elementary operations and represented as a hierarchical structure by levels (for example, stages, operations, actions and elementary operations).
Example. Creating a document using the text editor WinWord can be divided into the following stages: stage 1 - typing; stage 2 - creating tables and filling them out; stage 3 - inserting graphics executed in any graphics editor;
Step 4 - pagination;
Step 5 - formatting the document, etc.
In step 5 of the text formatting, the following operations are performed.
operation 1 - formatting headers; operation 2 - formatting the text; operation 3 - formatting drawings, etc.
The text formatting operation 2 includes the following actions:
action 1 - change the font, its shape and size; action 2 - create upper or lower indexes; action 3 - creating lists, etc.
Elementary operations under action 1 (changing the font, its shape and size):
elementary operation 1 - select text; elementary operation 2 - activating the font type; Elementary operation 3 - select the required font type; elementary operation 4 - changing the font type, etc.
Thus:• Information technology is a process that consists of clearly regulated rules for performing operations, actions, stages of varying degrees of complexity over the data stored in the computer. The main purpose of this technology is to obtain the necessary information for the user. Information technology is provided by the information system; is an environment composed of people, computers, computer networks, software products, databases, various kinds of technical and software communication tools and so on. . The main purpose of the information system is to ensure the storage, processing and transmission of information. Consequently, such a system is a means for implementing information technology.
Presentation of information systems. The structure of the information system and the processes occurring in it can be represented in the schematic form (Figure 1.1). Blocks of input, processing and output of information constitute the device -
Fig. 1.1. Generalized structure of the information system
and software of the information system. Feedback can be carried out by both people and software and hardware. The information coming through the feedback channel is intended for correcting the input information, and the output information for the decision making.
The information system can also be represented as a collection of subsystems. The subsystem is a part of the system allocated by some kind of feature. Let's consider the main types of providing subsystems, or types of support.
Information support is a set of unified system of classification and coding of information, unified documentation systems, information flow schemes circulating in the organization, and methodology for building databases. Information subsystems should ensure the timely formation and issuance of reliable information necessary for decision-making.
Technical Support is:
a complex of technical means containing computers, devices for collecting, accumulating, processing, transmitting and displaying information, communication lines, office equipment and automatic information retrieval devices, operating materials and other;
• documentation, containing state and industry standards, a set of techniques for all stages of technical support development, regulatory and reference documents and other documents. The documentation prepares a preliminary selection of technical means, the organization of their operation, the technological process of data processing, technical equipment.
Mathematics is a collection of mathematical methods, models and algorithms designed to create programs.
Software is a set of programs accompanied by technical documentation and intended to realize the goals and tasks that are solved by the information system.The organizational support is a set of methods and tools that regulate the interaction of workers with both technical means and among themselves in the development and operation of the information system.
Legal support is a set of legal norms that determine the creation, legal status and functioning of information systems regulating the procedure for obtaining, transforming and using information. The main purpose of such provision is to strengthen the rule of law. The legal support includes laws, decrees, resolutions and other legal documents.
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