Information Technologies in Industry and Economics - Information Technologies

Information technology in industry and economics

The introduction of information technology in the sphere of production, trade, banking, initially developed along the path of creating home-grown information systems. The term ASUP (automated production management system), which appeared in the 60s was heard for dozens of years. However, the main problem of complex automation was not solved, but at the same time, experience was accumulated in the development of such systems and specialists were trained capable of solving the tasks of introducing information technologies into the sphere of business management at the modern level.

In the design of automated control systems, compatibility and standardization issues were often ignored, which made it difficult to implement modern technologies and led to high modernization costs. At present, in spite of the specifics of subject areas, corporate information systems (KIS) based on the principles of corporate information technologies (see Subsection 61) and modern standards (Section 8.3) have become widespread.

There are three main classes of problems solved with the help of CIS [27]. These are the tasks:

• the formation of reporting indicators (tax services, statistics, investors, etc.), obtained on the basis of standard accounting and statistical reporting;

• Development of strategic management decisions on business development based on the base of highly aggregated indicators;

• Development of tactical solutions aimed at operational control and solved on the basis of a database of private, highly detailed indicators reflecting various aspects of local characteristics of the structure.

The main difficulty in the implementation of CIS is is diagnostics.

Here you can distinguish three stages:

1) survey, system analysis and evaluation of the existing structure and management technologies;

2) development of new options for organizational structures and management technologies based on information technology;

3) development of provisions for the reorganization of management, implementation plan, management workflow rules.

Conditionally distinguish replicable, semi-custom and customized CIS.

Replicated CIS does not require revision by the developer, exists in itself, does not provide the possibility of making changes. Such systems are designed for small businesses.

Custom systems with the current level of information technology are a thing of the past, they are unreliable, do not meet the standards and are difficult to upgrade. The main area of ​​their application is production with very high specificity.

Semi-order systems are the most flexible, more meet the requirements of the customer, require less capital costs. The main area of ​​their application is large enterprises (hundreds of documents per month and more than five people in the chain of business processes).

Currently, a large number of foreign developments are represented on the corporate systems market. Taking into account the specifics of the principles of accounting, management, planning, in the United States economy, domestic CICs occupy stronger positions. In Table. 6.1 presents the characteristics, functional capabilities and areas of use of the most popular domestic CIS ("ITT", "Galaxy", "Sail", "1C"). [8].

Table 6.1

Features

Developer Company

ITT

- Galaxy

Sail

IC

Circulation of CIS:

sold licenses

126

30000

300

30000

finished projects

2

600

1

N/A

in the implementation

10

150

5

L/d

Financial management:

Home Book

+

+

+

Budget

+

+

+

+

settlements with customers and suppliers

+

+

+

+

accounting for accounts with accountable persons

+

+

+

+

accounting for banking transactions

+

+

+

cost center management

+

+

+

*

Sub-accounting

+

+

+

Financial Reporting and Consolidated Balance Sheet

+

+

organization of an arbitrary composition of directories

+

+

+

the organization of an arbitrary set of documents, their structure, interrelations and algorithms of information processing

+

• *

+

construction of arbitrary reports (based on data sample and presentation forms)

+

+

*

+

organization of multi-level accounting of funds for an arbitrary number of resources

N/A

• f

+

+

organization of periodic calculations of arbitrary depth, periodicity and complexity

N/A

+

support for multidimensional and multilevel analytical accounting for accounting accounts

+

+

+

+

the ability to work at remote locations without the use of database servers

+

+

+

+

arbitrary customization of the interface and the nature of access for certain categories of users

+

+

+

+

logging by the user

+

+

+

+

Debugging program modules by the user

-

+

creating customized configurations that are protected from changes by the user

+

+

+

+

Financial Planning

+

+

+

+

Financial analysis

+

+

+

+

calendar network planning

+

"

+

forecasting

+ *

+

+ *

-

Production Planning

+ *

+

+ *

Material requirements planning: Human resources management:

+ * *

+

+

Accounting personnel

+

4 *

+

+

staffing list

+

+

+

+

Payroll calculation

+

+

+

+

time attendance

+

+

+

+

Work time accounting Inventory management:

+

4 *

+

+

Inventory data management

+

+

V/p

шшт

Statistical Inventory Management

+

+

V/p

Inventory management

+

+

in/p

Inventory planning

+

V/p

batch management Supply management:

+

+

+

Maintaining proposals and contracts

4 *

+

4

+

order management

+

+

+

-

Maintain purchasing statistics

Sales Management:

+

+

+

Maintaining offers and contracts for sale

+

+

+

+

Continuation of Table. 6.1

Inventory management for sale

+

+

+

+

Maintaining Implementation Statistics

+

+

+

+

marketing management Production management:

-

+

V/p

N/A

operational management of production

-

+

V/p

-

technical preparation of production

-

+

-

+

costing of products

-

+

V/p

-

technical and environmental planning

-

+

V/p

-

capacity planning

+ *

+

+

-

Maintaining production master data for product routing

+ *

+

+ *

-

maintenance of basic production data on the composition of the product

+ *

+

+ *

-

Accounting for production costs

+

+

V/p

+

management of fixed assets and equipment Maintenance:

+

+

V/p

N/A

maintenance and repair organization

+ *

+

V/p

+

Claim processing

+ *

+

V/p

+

Claim Management Project Management:

+ *

+

V/p

+

financial preparation of the project (estimate)

+ *

+

+

-

project planning

+ *

+

-

-

configuration of non-standard products

Working with trading equipment:

+ *

+

-

-

support for the OPOS standard

-

-

-

+

fiscal cash registers

-

+

-

+

POS-terminals

-

+

-

+

electronic scales

-

+

-

+

barcode printers

-

+

-

+

barcode scanners *

-

+

-

+

Data collection terminals System characteristics:

-

-

-

+

support for working with fidivals on a single database

+

Replication

Replication

Replication

input and processing of graphic information

+

+

electronic document matching

+

+

+ *

+

free layout jobs

+ (module Administrator )

+

+

+

modernization of the workflow logic by the user

+

+

+ *

+

Implemented architecture model "client-server"

Three-level

Two-tier

Two-tier

Two-tier

Server OS

Any for Oracle

Anyone for Oracle

Any for Oracle

Any for Windows NT

Workstation OS

Windows 95, NT

Windows 95,

Windows 95,

Windows 95,

NT

NT

CS database of the CIS server

Oracle

Btrieve, MS SQL, Oracle

Oracle 7

MS SQL 65

the CIS development language

Oracle tools (Des/2000, Dev/2000, Prog/2000)

The application part is 4GL Vip, the tool part is the client -

With ++

Client - Delphi, server - PL/SQL

MS C ++, built-in language

Hardware platform;

client part

Intel

Intel

Intel

Intel

server part

Any for Oracle

Intel, any for Oracle

Intel, HP 9000, DEC

Intel

Price:

basic software module, $, for 1 job

& gt; 1000

1000-2000

600-1000

280-960

price dependence on the number of jobs

N/A

Linear, discounts based on volumes

Discounts based on the number of jobs

He does not depend

training, $/h

& gt; 50

17

50

+

Accompaniment

l year free, then 15% of the license cost

36% of the license cost

1 year free, then 30% of the license cost

Technical Support Line Free

Replace version

Included in the cost of escorts

Included in the cost of escorts

Included in the cost of escorts

Half-price upgrade

Discounts for branches

+

+

+

+ *

discounts to other users

CIS

Possible

-

Possible

-

Note: + - Yes; - - no; partially; V/r - is in development; N/A - no data.

In the informatization of banking activities, processes similar to those discussed above occurred. There are two main directions [8, 46]:

1) Informatization of tasks of input and update of operational information, obtaining standard reporting (OLTP-system-On-Line Tranzaction Processing on the basis of industrial DBMS);

2) Informatization of high-level analytical tasks (analysis of the bank's activity, preparation of the consolidated report, calculation and management of risks, etc.).

In the first case, systems based on industrial DBMS, the so-called OLTP-systems are used.

In the second case, the technology of data warehouses (Data Warrehouse) and OIAP (On-Line Analytic Processing) applications is used. In Table. 6.2 presents the characteristics of the most common banking information systems [52].

Table 6.2

No. п/п

Developer Company

System

Basic Element of Technology

DBMS

OS server, database

Application Development Tool

Number of customer banks

1

R-Style Software Lab *

RS-Bank 4

Deal

Btrieve

Novell NetWare; Windows NT

C, C ++

600

2

Diasoft

DiasoftBank

4.4

Document

Btrieve

Novell NetWare; Windows NT

Clarion for Windows

600

3

Programs-Bank

DOS-complex

Athena

Wrap/document

BtrieveOracle

Novell NetWare Unix; Windows NT

Clipper

400

4

Invertion

InvoBank Bank XXI Century

Deal/document

Deal/document

Btrieve

Oracle

Novell NetWare

Unix; Windows NT

C ++

Developpcr

2000

250

6

5

CFT

1B System

IB System Object

Document

Document

Btrieve

Oracle

Novell NetWare; Windows NT Unix

Clipper IB Object

200

3

6

Quorum

Bank-Quo

room

Operation

Btrieve

Novell

NetWare;

Windows NT;

Unix

Turbo Pascal 7.0, Atlas

130

7

CSB1

ITS

Banker

Document

Progress

Unix; OS/2; Windows NT

40 L Progress

60

8

Force

Va-Bank /

Va-Bank

Start

Document

Oracle

Novell

NetWare,

OS/2,

Windows NT,

Unix

Dcvelopper

2000

60

Va-Bank Plus/Symbols-R

Deal - Contract

Oracle

Unix, Open VHS

Developper 2000, Oracle Forms 3.0

5

9

BIS

Biscuit

Document/Transaction

Progress

8.2

Unix

4GLProgress

61

10

Canopus

Macro -

Bank * 2

Posting/

document

Btrieve

Novell NetWare, Windows NT

SI

40

Macro -

Bank * 3

Document/

Deal

MSSQL6.5

Novell NetWare, Windows NT

Delphi 3.0 (client part), Borland C ++ Builder

1

In addition to CIS, it should be noted software systems that implement separate management functions:

1. Accounting programs: 1C: Accounting, BEST, Turbo-accountant, Sail, Info-accountant;

2. Trade automation systems: 1C: Trade, Sail, BEST 4, Folio;

3. Information and reference systems: Garant, Consultant Plus, Codex;

4. Programs for business planning: Project Expert, Microsoft Project, Triumph-Analyst;

5. Automation systems for warehouse accounting: 1C: Warehouse, Folio, BEST, Sail;

6. Document management systems: Case, Lotus Notus, 1C: Document flow.

Separately from the problems of building a CIS, the direction of creating automated control systems for technological processes (ACS TP) is considered. The urgency of this problem is explained by the fact that in old systems often the selected elements do not fit together, they do not meet the requirements and there are no means and possibilities for correcting the current situation. At the present time, the concept of open systems based on system integration, based on the following principles [21], is dominant in the field of ACS TP:

• compatibility of software and hardware of various manufacturers from the bottom up;

• a comprehensive check and debugging of the entire system at the stand of the integrator firm based on the customer's specification.

In most cases, ACS TPs represent a two-level control system. The lower level includes controllers that provide the primary processing of information coming directly from the control object. The software of controllers is usually implemented in technological languages ​​such as the language of relay-contact circuits.

The upper level of ACS TPs are powerful computers that perform the functions of database servers and workstations that provide storage, analysis and processing of all incoming information, as well as interaction with the operator. The basis of top-level software are SCADA (Supervision Control And DATA Acquisition) packages.

The concept of open systems is most clearly seen in the open modular architecture of controllers (OMA) (Open Modular Architecture Controls) developed by General Motors. Close to them, the concepts are proposed by the European (Open Systems Architecture for Controls within Automation Systems - OSACA), Japanese (Japan International Systems and Control Automation - IFORA, Japan Open Systems Environment for Controller Architecture - USEC) and American (Technologies Enabling Agile Manufacting - TEAM Projects) organizations. The content of OMAS requirements is in basic terms:

Open - an open architecture that provides integration of hardware and software;

Modular - a modular architecture that allows you to use components in Pluge and Play mode;

Scaleable - scalable architecture that allows you to easily change the configuration for specific tasks;

Economical - economical architecture;

Maintenable is an easily maintained architecture.

The hardware platform of the controllers is based on miniature PC-compatible computers, which have high reliability, speed, compatibility due to "kinship" with top-level computers. The operating environment of the PC-controllers must also satisfy the requirements of openness.

Here, the most common is the QNX operating system (QSSL, Canada). The QNX architecture is open, modular, easily modifiable. Specifics of working with controllers is the use of languages ​​of technological programming that describe the process itself and are aimed at the work of non-programmers, and technologists. The accumulated experience with similar languages ​​is summarized in the standard IEC 1131-3, where five main language tools are defined:

SFG - the language of sequential functional schemes;

LD - the language of the ladder diagrams

FBD is the language of functional block diagrams;

ST - structured text language;

IL is the instruction language.

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