Information technology in the workplace of a bank specialist
The principles of building automated banking systems
Automated banking system (ABS) is a form of organizational management of a bank based on a wide application of new information technologies.
Currently, ABS covers virtually all aspects of the bank's activities, including daily intrabank operations, bookkeeping and compilation of summary reports; communication with branches and out-of-town branches; interaction with customers (so-called Bank-Client systems); analysis of the bank's activities and selection of optimal solutions; retail operations related to the use of ATMs and plastic cards; interbank settlements; work of the bank on the securities market; information services.
Very strict requirements are imposed on modern ABS not only on the part of user banks, but also on the part of state and supervisory bodies. Manufacturers of ABS must dynamically adjust their products and changing standards and reporting requirements for the conduct of banking business. Among the basic requirements for ABS, the following can be distinguished.
Functional completeness is one of the main characteristics of ABS. Complex ABS can contain tens of thousands of different automated functions and banking operations. The requirement of functional completeness characterizes the software product from the point of view of including in it all software components necessary for performing the specified functions, and the ability of the system to correspond to the information needs of the bank most fully, covering all types of banking activities. When developing the list of functions that the acquired (developed) ABS should automate, one should proceed not only from the needs of the present day, but also to the perspective within the framework of the bank's development strategy, so as not to find itself in a situation when it is necessary to adapt the strategy to the existing ABS.> Integrated approach. Only a comprehensive information banking system integrating various areas of the bank's activities is able to fully automate and integrate business processes of a financial institution into a single whole. Work with clients, participation in exchange trades, etc. should be linked with the internal economic activities of the bank, with accounting.
Scalability of the system is the ability of the system to adapt to the expansion of the requirements and the increase in the volume of tasks to be solved, specifically, the number of serviced workstations and the number of documents processed, response and overall performance, as well as meet the functional requirements when adding to the system of computing resources, etc.
Customizable systems - it's its mobility, dynamism, lability. Customization assumes that these or other significant parameters are not set rigidly and can be adapted to the needs and specifics of a specific bank.
Centralized management system. The adjustment of the technology of its functioning in accordance with the bank's operating technology was not performed from the end user's workstations, but from one specific module. All the basic settings can be performed by a qualified bank technologist, and bank employees can immediately start working with the program. ABS with this architecture can be prepared for operation as quickly and as qualitatively as possible. In addition, it is possible to quickly change the conditions for performing any operation, and this is a very positive moment when creating new banking products.
Single database , which provides multi-user work. It is recommended to use distributed databases based on industrial DBMS (MS SQL Server, Oracle, Informix, DB2). These databases include a transaction mechanism, access control, means of maintaining referential integrity and consistency of data. The use of distributed databases makes it possible to provide the necessary level of data security, and programmers of the bank make it possible
focus on optimizing the content of applications.
Real-time work. In real-time, the response of the system to the control action should correspond to the process speed that the system manages.Security and reliability. A software failure (software) or malicious intrusion into a geographically dispersed banking information system can have fatal consequences, quantified (amount of damage) or qualitatively (the fall of the image, the breakdown of negotiations, etc.).
Among the principles that the automated banking system should match:
• The principle of dynamic user workstations. The workstation of the user of the automated banking system is (dynamically) configured and defined as the user's address (name) with the set of documents, processing of documents, set of granted rights. The user, entering his name into the system from an arbitrary computer, works with certain documents. In the event that the set of documents with which it works is changing for the user (or his subdivision), his workplace is appropriately reconfigured. In other words, the configuration of all dynamic workplaces of the system is made both before the start of the system operation and as necessary in the process of functioning. In this case, the specific user ID (which can be a group, that is, the identity of the bank subdivision) is assigned specific documents and the stages of their processing.
• The principle of basing on the electronic document circulation system of the bank. The electronic document circulation system of the bank is an applied telecommunication environment for creating, modifying and transmitting electronic documents both inside the bank and between the bank and customers, the bank and its branches, third-party banks or settlement (payment) systems. Adherence to this principle means that all external documents fall into the electronic document circulation system and other banking applications work with documents, accepting and sending them through the electronic document management system. The system of electronic document circulation of the bank can use for external communication external telecommunication networks, for example SPRINT, the Internet or the settlement network of the US Central Bank.
• The principle of sharing Online- and Offline- document processing technologies. Online technology allows you to process documents ("post posting") in real time at the time of automatic generation of transactions (transactions) documents. Offline- technology allows for offline processing of documents, generation of postings at the user's workplace and their subsequent dispatch through the electronic document management system to the core of the operational day for account spacing. Compliance with this principle means that the user's workplace can be dynamically configured (depending on the availability of the operating-day kernel with the account database server) on any of these technologies.
• The principle of using unique document identification. Using a system of unique identification (numbering) of documents (including those created remotely) allows you to identify and analyze the operations performed on these documents and their influence on the state of accounts. The document identifiers are present in the information about all operations generated by these documents.
• The principle of integrating system components. The components of the system are a distributed kernel (SQL servers of bank databases with triggers - elements that have two stable states and procedures for working with accounts ), user workstations (client applications for document processing) and electronic document management system (transport documents between workplaces and databases) - should be maximally integrated. This, in particular, means that:
- documents sent from one workstation to another, depending on the location of the latter, can be automatically or immediately transferred to local networks to this workplace; either enter the electronic document management system and be transported to any distance;
- the electronic document management system equally routes (transports) electronic documents of any type in the "customer-bank" system, including payment orders of customers. It routes the electronic documents automatically generated by the core of the banking system (for example, account statements), trade card transactions generated by the trading terminal in the store; electronic documents coming from external systems (say, SWIFT);
- client applications represent a standardized software shell, tuning to specific forms of documents, having uniform methods of exchange with the kernel and the electronic document management system.
Basic objects: The following main objects, document, user ID, user address, account, transaction and microprocessor card are highlighted in the system. Briefly review each of them.
The document is determined by the route of its processing (represented by a sequence of steps) and a set of screen forms with the appropriate algorithms for document processing at each stage.
The user's ID determines the access rights of a particular user. The user is identified or the password is directly requested by the system; or a microprocessor card, which, in turn, may require the user to enter a PIN-code (personal identification code).
The user's address specifies the location of a particular user in a geographically distributed banking system. The address can be (relative to another address) as local, within the same local network, or global, territorially remote.
Account. Current state and history of account state changes are stored on the SQL database server, accessible only through triggers and server procedures, which ensures the integrity of the database and security of accounts from client applications.
Operation is a set of consecutive transactions and some credentials that change the status of accounts. Generated automatically when the document reaches the stage with which the operation is associated. Performed (carried) if the following conditions are met:
• if the postings composing the operation are delivered to the core of the banking system (they could be generated at the remote workstation in offline Offline mode);
• when the date associated with the transaction (and specified in the document) comes, taking into account that the postings can be postponed;
• When a certain general type logical condition associated with this operation is executed. Such a condition, set during the formation (adjustment) of this type of document, can be, for example, the need to confirm the operation by the unit manager (having a personal password or a card) when the amount of a certain limit is exceeded.
Microprocessor card is a means of identifying system users and means of authorizing electronic payment documents of any kind. It allows to protect an electronic payment document by an electronic signature, and to the recipient at the receipt to authenticate it - to make sure that the document (be it a payment order from a customer, a commercial transaction from a store, etc.) was compiled by the specified sender and the ns was unauthorizedly changed. The main advantage of this card when used for client authentication purposes in comparison with the password is uniqueness (nonspiration), while the password can be peeped or copied somehow.
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