INFORMATIONAL TECHNOLOGIES OF ACCOUNTING
The essence of accounting
Federal Law No. 129-FZ & "On Accounting defines accounting as an "orderly system for collecting, recording and summarizing information in monetary terms about property, liabilities of organizations and their movement through continuous, continuous and documented accounting of all business transactions". The main objectives of accounting are the formation of complete and reliable information on the activities of the organization and its property status, which is necessary for internal users (managers, founders, participants and owners of the organization's property), external users (investors, creditors, etc.). Accounting is based on the continuous accounting of business transactions, continuous in time based on documents. In accounting, the double a record of the business transaction on credit and the debit of the accounting accounts (Figure 16.1), i.e. the same transaction amount is reflected in the debit and credit of the corresponding accounts.
The valuation of business transactions is given in the currency of the United States on the date of their commission, indicating the documents of the grounds.
For accounting purposes, an accounting policy is developed - a set of rules and constraints that define:
1. Plan of accounts.
2. Forms of primary accounting documents used for registration of business transactions and financial statements.
Fig. 16.1. Double entry schema for accounts
3. The procedure for inventorying property, methods for assessing property and liabilities.
4. Rules of workflow.
5. The order of control of economic operations, etc.
Possible changes in accounting policy should be introduced from the beginning of the fiscal year.
Chart of accounts of financial and business activities of enterprises approved by the order of the Ministry of Finance of the USSR (in the edition of the Ministry of Finance of the United States of 07.05.2003 No. 38n) is the basis for the formation of Work Plan accounts. Depending on the participation in the formation of the balance, balance and off-balance accounts are distinguished; Active account types are distinguished by the type of the final account balance (credit balance is 0), passive accounts (debit balance is 0), active-passive accounts. Depending on the algorithm for closing the account at the end of the accounting period, the accumulative and productive accounts are distinguished. The working chart of accounts contains synthetic and analytical accounts. Synthetic accounting - accounting of generalized accounting data on types of property, liabilities and business transactions for certain economic characteristics, provides accounting in value terms. Analytical accounting is conducted in facial, material and other analytical accounts of accounting, grouping detailed information on property, liabilities and on business transactions within each synthetic account. Accounting in the analytical account is carried out in value or in kind. For one synthetic account (subaccount), several analytical accounts can be opened. The relationship between synthetic and analytical accounts is shown in Fig. 16.2.
Fig. 16.2. Link synthetic and analytical accounts
For accounting purposes, the system primary accounting and output reporting documents is used. Primary accounting documents are compiled at the time of the transaction or immediately after its completion. For the timely and high-quality execution of primary accounting documents, their transfer in due time for reflection in the accounting records, the authenticity of the data contained in the documents is the responsibility of the persons who compiled or signed the documents. The right to sign primary accounting records is approved by the head of the organization in consultation with the chief accountant.
In order to control and streamline the processing of data on business transactions on the basis of primary accounting documents, consolidated accounting documents on paper and computer data carriers are compiled. Primary accounting documents, accounting registers and accounting records are kept for a specified period of time, the work plan of accounting accounts, other accounting policy documents, coding procedures, computer processing programs are stored for at least five years after the year in which they were used to prepare financial statements for the last time.
There are the following forms of accounting.
• Balance Sheet - Form 1;
• Profit and Loss Statement - Form 2;
• Statement of changes in equity - Form 3;
• Statement of cash flows - Form 4;
• Supplement to the balance sheet - Form 5;
• report on the intended use of the funds received - form 6;
• an audit report confirming the reliability of the company's financial statements (if it is subject to mandatory audit in accordance with federal laws);
• Explanatory note.
Forms of accounting statements of organizations, as well as instructions on how to fill them are approved by the US Department of Finance, the reporting year for all organizations is a calendar year - from January 1 to December 31 inclusive. Monthly and quarterly reports are interim and are generated by the cumulative total from the beginning of the reporting year. Annual financial statements are provided to founders, participants of the organization or property owners, to territorial state statistics bodies at the place of registration. Quarterly financial statements are provided within 30 days after the end of the quarter, annual - within 90 days after the end of the year. Accounting statements must be public.
For accounting purposes, standard forms of accounting registers, are used to determine the order and ways of registration and grouping of accounting information. Accounting registers are divided into chronological (registration of credentials strictly in chronological order) and systematic (accounting data are selected according to a certain feature). In the non-automated version of accounting, accounting registers are paper forms that are filled manually or by means of office equipment (typewriters). In computer accounting systems, a relational database is used as the accounting register, which allows the formation of various forms of accounting registers.
Registers of the journal-order form of bookkeeping are used for small enterprises engaged in the material production sphere; enterprises engaged in trade and other intermediary activities use registers from a simplified form of accounting (statements "Fixed assets, accrued depreciation charges", "Production stocks and goods, and VAT paid on valuables", "Production costs" and etc.). Each statement, as a rule, is used to record transactions on one of the accounts. The amount for the transaction is recorded simultaneously in two statements: on the debit or credit of the account with the number of the corresponding account. The balances in the statements are checked against the data of the primary documents. Generalization of monthly totals is made in the chess list, on which a turnover sheet is formed, which is the basis for the formation of the balance sheet.
Accounting Journal & Journal Journal Home It is applied at the enterprises with small volume of accounting operations and the simplified chart of accounts. This type of register is both systematic and chronological at the same time, accounting is only for synthetic accounts. At the beginning of the reporting period, the balance of the accounts of the working chart of accounts is entered, every day in the journal, the debit and credit of the correspondent accounts are entered, indicating the documents of the basis for the business transaction. Analytical accounting is maintained in auxiliary books, cards and statements opened on the basis of primary documents ( Statement of Payroll & quot ;, Statement of Use of Materials & quot ;, Statement of Fixed Assets (OS) account etc.). At the end of the accounting period, revolutions on analytical accounts are displayed, but each synthetic account calculates the turnover, the final balance for which reconciliation with the balance of analytical accounts is made. Based on the results obtained, a final balance sheet for the period is drawn up.
Accounting ledger "Book of economic transactions"; allows you to register business transactions on the basis of primary documents in chronological order. Each transaction is reflected in the accounts by entering correspondence on the accounts. The register is maintained for a long time (several accounting periods - months or years), this allows you to sample the debit/credit account, calculate the amount of postings for a period of time. On the basis of primary documents, analytical accounting sheets are formed ("Cash Book", "Salary Schedule"). The register is quite laborious for manual filling.
Accounting ledger & "Order journal/account statement" is the most common accounting register of a systematic type. The data from the primary documents are reflected in the logs of orders and cumulative statements (journals are made according to the credit principle, and the records are on a debit basis). Registers are maintained for one month, after which the results of turnover in the context of the corresponding accounts are counted. General ledger General ledger is formed on the basis of revolutions on accounts for a month in the logs of orders and statements according to the algorithm:
• the credit turnover of the account is transferred by one total amount for the month;
• debit turns are collected from different order logs and are accounted for in detail;
• The turnover but the debit of each account is summed, the account balance is displayed at the end of the month.
In a memorial-order form of accounting, chronological and systematic records of accounting records are kept separately. Accounting posting is made out by drawing up a memorial warrant for each operation or group of similar operations. Analytical accounting is maintained on cards, the card number for the relevant transaction posting is indicated in the warrant. Documents - grounds for posting are attached to orders, which are registered in a special journal with the number, date of compilation and amount for transactions. For each synthetic account in the General ledger a separate sheet is allocated, orders are reflected in the General Ledger twice - by debit and credit of accounts. Based on the summary of the General ledger make up turnover sheets but simple or checkerboard form.
Summary register & "Turnover statement serves to generalize the accounting information reflected in the accounts, to verify the accuracy of accounting entries and to compile a balance sheet. Negotiable balances can be compiled on synthetic and analytical accounts, most often they are used in combination with other accounting registers. For each account for the accounting period, the opening balance, turnover and debit and credit are specified, the final balance is calculated, and on the basis of the turnover balance sheet the balance sheet is constructed.
Accounting is carried out by a specialized structural unit - an accounting department or a specialized organization (centralized accounting, auditing firm, etc.) on a contractual basis, an accountant specialist or personally the head of the enterprise. Most often, a separate subdivision is created - accounting, headed by the chief accountant, who directly reports to the head of the enterprise. The typical organizational structure of accounting at medium-sized enterprises is shown in Fig. 16.3, it is taken as a basis for the development of automated workstations (AWP) of accountants.
Accounting functions are assigned to the functions of organizing and maintaining accounting records, performing specified control functions:
• preliminary control - prior to the completion of the business transaction (the chief accountant signs all documents that change financial, credit and settlement obligations);
Fig. 16.3. Organizational structure of accounts department
• current control - at the time of or after the economic transaction (the legality of operations, the correctness of processing documents, the presence of errors, etc.);
• follow-up control - after some time (results of financial and economic activities for the reporting period, transition to analysis of economic activity).
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