INTEGRATION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES
Integrated Information Technologies and Systems
The modern information and communication system of the enterprise is an integrated environment for the functioning of modern IT, realizing business goals. Within the same information system, dozens of IT can be used to automate various managerial functions and are actively used in the preparation phase in the decision-making process at various levels of management (Figure 11.1). In this regard, it should be noted that today the domestic market is dominated by two main trends in their development and implementation.
First is, for example, that the enterprise is making efforts to implement automation systems only in certain areas of its activity, content with selective strong> ( patchwork ) automation and assuming further to combine them into a common system. Despite the fact that this path seems to be less expensive at first glance, the experience of implementing such systems shows that the minimum costs in such projects often turn out to be minimal return, or even do not bring the desired result.
With patchwork automation , it's almost impossible to see a real picture of an enterprise's operations. Consequently, it is impossible and in any reasonable way to plan its activities and corresponding financial indicators. The result of the patchwork information reda is the low efficiency of its components, increased costs for support, operation and development, the inability to provide the required information and accounting and analytical support for business processes at the proper level. As a result, losses in business efficiency!
Fig. 11.1. Categories of information subsystems that support different types of solutions
Second trend - integrated implementation of automation and information support processes, which allows to cover all links of the management system : from the grass-roots level of production units to the top management level. In this case, such an integrated system includes:
• Automation and information support of management processes, analysis processes and strategic planning;
• Automation of many areas of the enterprise (accounting, financial management, personnel, sales, supply, etc.);
• Automation and information support of the main technological processes of the enterprise.
In Fig. 11.2 shows the general scheme of the hardware and communications implementation of the integrated enterprise management system.
Fig. 11.2. Scheme of the hardware-communication implementation of the integrated enterprise management system
Integration can take place at the level of formats and databases, firmware and network devices, user interfaces, forms and templates of workflow, software applications, etc. The benefits of such integration are obvious. It allows: to save the investments made earlier; reduce the time and financial costs to support and develop the information sphere of the company's influence; use for the solution of specific problems the most effective systems of individual manufacturers; it is easy to expand and develop the individual capabilities of existing information systems with the data already accumulated in them.
Integrated Information EnvironmentEffective functioning of information and telecommunication systems takes place, as a rule, in the single information space of the enterprise, which represents databases and data warehouses, technologies for their maintenance and use, a set of information and telecommunication systems and networks operating on the basis of common principles and common rules. This structure of the information space provides secure information interaction of all participants in production and management activities, and also satisfies their information needs in accordance with the hierarchy of duties and the level of access to data.
In Fig. 11.3 as an example, the basis for the creation of an integrated information environment of a high-tech manufacturing enterprise, including the following components, is shown:
• the telecommunication environment, communication software (software), the means of organizing teamwork of employees (Groupware);
• information resources, information and software systems:
• Electronic document management software;
• Software for informational support of subject areas;
• On-line analysis of information and decision support;
• Project management software; built-in tools and other products (for example, CAD/CAM/CAE/PDM-systems, personnel management software, etc.);
• the organizational infrastructure that ensures the functioning and development of the information environment;
• system of training and retraining of specialists and users of the information environment.
This requires an objective assessment of the specific capabilities of information technology and technology as tools that greatly enhance human capabilities, but do not relieve people of their responsibility for their use.
Fig. 11.3. The base for creating an integrated information environment of a production high-tech enterprise
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