Electronic digital signature
Electronic digital signature (EDS) is used to confirm the authorship of this message.
Using special mathematically grounded algorithms, an electronic digital signature is calculated as a function of a particular signed message. This function is calculated by the author of the message on the basis of some information - an individual key. EDS depends on each symbol of the message, so you can not change it or replace it with another without changing the value of the EDS. At the same time, when two different messages generated on their basis coincide, it is practically impossible. Therefore, the signature allows you to uniquely identify the author of this message. In addition, EDS can also be used as a mechanism for monitoring the integrity of messages.
Using electronic digital signature mechanisms is also effective for organizing protection against refusals to send a message or receive it. In this case, the presence of the EDS of the sender is sufficient proof that he sent the message. The recipient of the message, in turn, signs its EDS with some function, calculated on the basis of the received message, and sends the result to the sender.
Thus, with the help of digital signature technology, the following basic tasks can be solved, namely confirmation:
• the authenticity of the electronic document;
• No changes or distortions made to it;
• authorship of the electronic document.
Integrity Monitoring Tools
Ensuring the integrity of information is one of the most important tasks of its protection. When building an information security system for computer systems, it is also very important to ensure the integrity of the software environment in which information is processed. This allows you to ensure the security of the system from penetration of malware into it.
Thus, integrity control should be carried out in two ways:
• Integrity control of data sets;
• control the integrity of the software environment.
In both cases, special tools are used based on certain mathematical algorithms. Usually for each file, program, etc. the corresponding checksum is calculated, which is stored by the protection system. The file can not be modified without changing its checksum. If the security system during the subsequent check revealed that the value of the checksum for an object differs from the specified one, a warning message is issued about possible unauthorized changes to this object.
The audit tools are designed to fix various actions of system users, first of all, actions that violate the security policy. This allows, on the one hand, to identify intruders, and on the other - to monitor the correct operation of the protection system, to detect its shortcomings. At the system configuration stage, the audit tools are used to identify which users are accessing certain system objects, which software is needed by specific users, what threats to information resources can exist in the system, and the like.
Typically, the audit tool is the so-called system log. It records events such as user logons, including logon error messages (they may indicate attempts to enter the system); access to certain software tools and data sets; attempts to carry out actions for which this user does not have rights, etc. Specific settings for the system log are made by the system administrator.
The system log is more a means of fixing violations than a means of preventing them. However, an analysis of the system log can help in identifying the means and information that an intruder used to carry out the violation. Also, using the system log, you can determine how far the detected violation occurred, suggest ways to investigate it and correct the situation. Determining the source of the violation is not always possible on the basis of information contained in the system log. However, this information allows us to significantly narrow the circle of alleged violators, then to apply other methods of investigation.
Thus, the system log is also a necessary subsystem of the information security system.
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