Measuring information Information measure
Measuring information can be considered as determining its amount and volume of data. Depending on the form of adequacy of information, these parameters have a different interpretation.
A syntactic measure of information does not express a semantic relation to an object, and the amount of data in a message is measured by the number of characters (bits) in this message. In the binary system, the number of bits is measured in bits, in the decimal system in dits. So, the message in the decimal number system in the form of the number 57 332 has a data volume of 5 diets, and the message in the binary system 01101111 is 8 bits. The amount of information at the syntactic level is connected with the concept of uncertainty of the system state (system entropy), which was formulated by K. Shannon, and is measured by the change (decrease) in the uncertainty of the system.
To measure the semantic content of information at the semantic level, a thesaurus measure is applied. Thesaurus - the totality of information that a user or system has.
A pragmatic measure of information determines the usefulness of information to achieve a user's goal.
Bit - the minimum unit of information, the amount of information that describes the state of is included (1) or off (0). The word bit occurred from Binary Digit (binary digit). It is this definition of the bit and given above in the subsection "Coding numbers". Is there an electrical voltage on the terminals of the circuit, is there an electrical charge in the memory cell, which of the two possible opposite directions of magnetization in a given region of the magnetic carrier, does the light reflect the laser optical disk - these are all questions that need to be answered? Yes or No, one of which is interpreted as a logical unit, and the second as a logical zero, therefore the electronic method of counting is based only on two digits, 0 and 1. It is data in the format of these digits that is assigned to store computer memory and process the calculator dimensional system.
Byte - is the unit for measuring the amount of information, memory capacity and storage capacity. In computer memory, a byte is the smallest addressable unit of data processed as a single unit (in the first computers, a number of 8 bits in length could be processed at a time), therefore, a unit of information, byte, sequence 8 bit, i.e. 1 byte = 8 bits.
In character (text) data, each character is coded (denoted) by one byte. The unique 8-bit notation (code) receives upper and lower case letters of English and United States alphabets, numbers from 0 to 9, punctuation marks, other symbols (percent, number) and some control codes for information transfer. On one typewritten page, when placing 50 lines and 60 characters of text in one line, 3 thousand characters are placed, therefore, 3 thousand bytes of machine memory is required for storing this text.
To write numbers shorter than 8 bits in bytes, add zeros to the left (see Table 1.1). The left zeros do not change the binary number, but they create a single form of writing numbers - 8 bits for any number from 0 to 255.
In the decimal system, the enlarged units of measurement are designated by prefixes to the name kilo, mega, giga, which corresponds to an increase in the numerical value by a factor of ten to the power: 103 = 1000 (thousand), 106 = 1 000 000 (million), 109 = 1 000 000 000 (billion), i.e. the transition to the next, larger, unit is accompanied by multiplication by 1000 (103). In the binary system, the enlarged units of measurement are also indicated by the prefixes to the name of kilo, mega, giga, ter, peta, exa, but they increase the numerical value by a factor of 2 to the power of 210, 220, 230, 240, 250, 260, i.e. the transition to the next larger unit is followed by multiplying by 210 = 1024:
• 1 KB = 1024 bytes = 210 bytes;
• 1 MB = 1024 KB = 220 bytes;
• 1 GB = 1024 MB = 230 bytes;
• 1 TB = 1024 GB = 240 bytes;
• 1 Pbyte = 1024 GB = 250 bytes;
• 1 Ebyte = 1024 Pbyte = 260 bytes.
The transmission of information over communication channels is characterized by the data transfer rate: bit per second, Kbps, Mbps, etc. The number of transmitted bits is more convenient to read in the decimal system, so the prefixes in velocity units are connected by a factor of 1000 (103). The unit of measurement of the data rate of 1 bit/s is called baud.
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