Methods for Collective Decision Making
Methods such as "brainstorming", or collective generation of ideas. The concept of "brainstorming", or "brainstorming", has become widespread since the early 50's. XX century. as a method of systematic training of creative thinking, aimed at the discovery of new ideas and the agreement of a group of people on the basis of intuitive thinking. 
The brainstorming is based on the hypothesis that among a large number of ideas there are at least a few good, useful solutions to the problem that need to be identified. Methods of this type are also known as collective ideas generation , conferences of ideas, exchange of opinions.
Usually, in the course of a brainstorming session or a session, OIGs try to follow certain rules, the essence of which is to ensure that the freedom of thinking of the participants of the OIG and the statements of new ideas are as great as possible. To do this, it is recommended to formulate the problem in basic terms, highlighting the central point of discussion, expressing and picking up any ideas, even if at first they seem questionable or absurd (discussion and evaluation of ideas are held later), not to criticize, not to declare false and not to stop discussing any idea, express as many ideas as possible (preferably non-trivial ones), try to create, as it were, chain reactions of ideas, provide support and encouragement, necessary to free participants from stiffness and the like.
Depending on the rules adopted and the severity of their implementation, direct "brainstorming", the method of exchange of opinions, the type of commissions, courts (in the latter case two groups are created: one group contributes as much as possible proposals, and the second tries to criticize them as much as possible). Brainstorming can be carried out in the form of a business game, using the training method stimulating observation, according to which the group forms an idea of the problem situation, and the expert is invited to find the most logical ways to solve the problem .In practice, the similarity of sessions of the OIG are advisory bodies of all kinds - directors, scientists, scientific and coordination councils, specially created provisional commissions, committees, brain trusts, not based on permanent personnel, etc.
In real conditions, it is difficult to ensure the strict implementation of the required rules, create an atmosphere of brainstorming: at the meetings of the chief designer or general director, council meetings (scientific, technical, coordination, etc.) is hampered by the influence of the organization's organizational structure; It is difficult to gather specialists for interdepartmental commissions. Therefore, it is desirable to apply methods of interviewing competent specialists that do not require their presence and oral expression of their opinions in a particular place and at a particular time, considered below.
Methods of brainstorming were used in the development and implementation of NATO's long-term scientific research programs, in military forecasting. However, already in the 60-ies. XX century. from the primary method of source of ideas and the search for the shortest way to solve the problem of AI has become an auxiliary tool in techniques using other methods of analysis, and now these methods are usually used as one of the elements of systematic analysis techniques in the form of discussions of proposals or intermediate results of analysis , obtained using various methods, at collective meetings such as "brainstorming".
Methods such as "scripts." Methods for preparing and agreeing on the views of a problem or an analyzed object, set out in writing, are called scenarios & quot ;. Initially, this method presupposed the preparation of a text containing a logical sequence of events or possible solutions to the problem deployed in time. However, later the mandatory requirement for temporal coordinates was removed, and the script was called any document containing an analysis of the problem and proposals for its solution or development of the system, regardless of the form in which it is presented.
As a rule, in practice, proposals for the preparation of such documents are written by experts first individually, and then the agreed text is formed.
Scenario provides not only meaningful arguments that help not to miss details that can not be taken into account in the formal model (this is the main role of the scenario), but also contains, as a rule, the results of quantitative technical, economic or statistical analysis of the state of the country, region, preliminary conclusions. The expert group preparing the scenario usually has the right to obtain the necessary information from enterprises and organizations, necessary consultations.
In practice, as the scenarios forecasts were made in the branches of industry. A variation of the scripts it is possible to consider complex programs of scientific and technical progress and its social and economic consequences, which were developed during the reforms of the 1970s. XX century. special commissions at the USSR Academy of Sciences, the State Planning Committee of the USSR and the State Committee for Science and Technology under the Council of Ministers of the USSR for the next 20 years.
The role of system analysis specialists in preparing the scenario is as follows:
1) help the attracted leading specialists of relevant fields of knowledge to identify common patterns of system development;
2) analyze the external and internal factors affecting its development and formulation of goals;
3) analyze the statements of leading specialists in the periodical press, scientific publications and other sources of scientific and technical information;
4) to create auxiliary information funds that help to solve the corresponding problem.
In the following, the concept of script Expands both in the direction of the application areas, and the forms of presentation and methods of their development: in the script allowed the introduction of quantitative parameters and the establishment of their interdependence, suggested methods for preparing the "script" with the use of a computer, the technique of target management of the preparation of the "script."
Scenario allows you to create a preliminary view of the problem (system) in situations that can not be immediately displayed by a formal model. However, the script - this is still a text with all the ensuing consequences (synonymy, homonymy, paradoxes), which cause the possibility of its ambiguous interpretation. Therefore, it should be considered as a basis for developing a more formalized idea of the future system or the problem being solved.
Group discussion methods or discussion methods. This type of collective decision-making is used to make managerial decisions.
The methods of group discussions are a means of involving leaders in developing a collective leadership style, increasing the motivation and involvement of participants in solving the problems discussed. The situation of group discussion stimulates associative thinking. This is favored by the emotional atmosphere of intellectual rivalry that develops during the discussion.
A brief description of the main methods of group discussions is given in Table. 2.13.
The method of the analysis of concrete situations (ACS).
Developed in the 20-ies. XX century. at the Harvard Business School
Passes in several stages.
1. An introduction to the situation under study and the problem behind it.
2. Statement of the problem - splitting into groups, obtaining a description of the situation, time of work, etc.
3. Group work on finding solutions.
4. Group discussion held in the form of a series of interventions by members of the group with the rationale for the proposed solution and subsequent general discussion with discussion of points of view and decisions, an assessment of the results of the analysis and the choice of the best solution in this situation.
The method is based on the principle of presenting your problem to others and collectively discussing it. The main goal is to help a person get deeper into this problem.
The session of the balintic group is conducted as follows.
1. Each of the participants in turn reports their problem.
2. A problem is chosen for discussion.
3. Questions are asked in turn.
4. Suggestions, recommendations.
5. Generalizations and conclusions are made
This method combines ideas of brainstorming and scenarios.
It takes the form of two main stages.
1. Each of the six members of the group records the main three ideas for solving the problem posed. For this purpose, and also in order to prevent the spatial description of ideas, a form is developed.
2. The main ideas (6 x 3 = 18) take turns to the members of the team, each of which complements them with three more thoughts related to solving the problem posed. After passing through all these six sections, the form contains 108 ideas.
The prerequisite for the application of the method is that the exchange of information between members of the group is allowed only in writing, which contributes to greater validity and clarity of ideas than oral statements
Combines the advantages of the "brainstorming" method, as well as the positive features of visual observation. The steps for implementing the method are as follows:
1. An instruction is given to the group to identify the problem, draw up a loss map. Members of the group, answering the questions: "What are the losses?", "What are the mobilized reserves?", Fill in colored cards.
The cards with answers arrive on a generalized scoreboard, the size of which is approximately 1.6 x 4 m. 6-7 cards of each of 15 people of the group are freely placed on it. only 100-120 responses, which provides a good overview.
2. The cards with answers are systematized in bank information
Method for - against
When preparing a voting method, the group determines the solutions to the problem and presents them in a schematic form so that the main characteristics can be observed by all the members of the group at the same time. Of the many options are chosen the necessary options at the jury meeting by scoring options for each member of the jury. For each of the options discussed, two representatives of the for (i.e., "defenders", positively characterizing the option) and as many representatives of the concept against (ie rejecting option)
Includes the following steps:
1. Definition of the problem.
2. Identification of factors that contribute to and impede the achievement of the goal, the relationship between them; while members of the expert group offer factors in writing.
3. Development of solutions to the problem, choosing the best option
The role method can be used:
■ to collect data that proves the correctness of the chosen concept;
■ preliminary acquaintance with the counterarguments that may arise in the process of approving a particular solution to the problem and which must be refuted;
■ using the above data and arguments to improve the chosen concept
The options for these methods are the discussion block and the question block method.
The first of these is implemented in the form of a discussion between 2-b participants in front of an audience of 20-25 people (which should be activated as a result of disputes) about a particular problem. And as an obligatory condition there is not an unambiguous definition of the problem. Speakers express their views in a concise and rapid manner; Speakers' speeches are supplemented by proposals from participants in the debate. Subsequently, the entire audience is involved in the debate between the panelists.
The second - methodically similar to the first. The respondents discuss the question posed in the presence of the group, determine the list, the order of possible answers. At the conclusion of the discussion, the group assesses the importance (reality, relevance) of the questions asked and responses received using the preference matrix
Discussion with the separation of intellectual functions
This form of working out and making managerial decisions provides for the division of functions in generation, development, discussion, criticism and the concrete development of ideas between different groups of participants. Group of generators conducts brainstorming, trying to put forward the maximum number of ideas to solve this problem.
A group of "scholars" develops the ideas put forward in the spirit of the latest achievements of science and technology.
Expert group subjects proposed ideas to critical analysis, can reject some ideas or return them for revision "erudite" and generators & quot ;.
8 Workgroup task includes the final revision of the proposals put forward, the development of a plan of measures for their implementation
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