Methods for collecting and analyzing information in management activities
In the most general form, the methods of collecting information that are used in the field of management can be divided into two groups: industrial espionage and analytical work. The first of these methods is industrial espionage - basically refers to the receipt of confidential information and will be considered later, and in this chapter we will pay attention to analytical work.
In the conditions of constantly changing economic relations, the formation of new organizations, the development and improvement of organizations already operating in the market, there is a great need for analytical work. There is a need to collect and accumulate information, experience, knowledge in all areas of management activities. The organization is interested in a detailed study of emerging market situations for the adoption of operational, economically sound solutions that will allow it to develop more rapidly.
Analysis is one of the most effective and safe ways of obtaining information. Using open information resources, you can get almost all the necessary information about the organization. The process of obtaining important information based on the synthesis of information from a variety of open sources will be called analytical work . It consists of the following steps:
Identify the source information for analysis, and how to obtain it.
Interpretation of information, i.e. revealing the true meaning of this or that information. First of all, information received in the oral form needs to be interpreted, since often this or that statement can be misunderstood, it can be caused by foreign speech, intonation, gestures, slang, phrases taken out of context or misunderstood, etc. .
Allocation of extraneous information - one of the most difficult and critical stages. The excess of information, as well as its lack, is a serious problem, makes it difficult and slows down the conduct of analytical work. In practice, a greater effect is brought on by focusing on a few key details than scattering between many disparate data. However, it is at this stage that there is a danger of losing important information. As a rule, this happens in case of incorrect interpretation of information in the previous stage.
Evaluation of information - the placement of information sources, the information itself and how to obtain it, depending on their reliability and reliability. The source of information can be specific people, newspapers, television, Internet sites, etc. When assessing information, there must be subjectivity, which must be minimized. Typically, the following rating system is used for this.
1. Source estimation:
A - reliable;
B - usually reliable;
B - pretty reliable;
D is not always reliable;
D - unreliable;
E - source of unknown reliability.
2. Evaluation of information:
I - confirmed by other facts;
II - probably true (true to 75%);
III - possibly truthful (true to 50%);
IV - questionable (true for 25%);
V - implausible;
VI - reliability can not be determined.
3. Evaluation of the way information is received:
I - getting information yourself (seen, heard myself, etc.);
II - obtaining information through a constant source (informer, open sources, etc.);
III - getting information through a one-time source (an accidentally overheard conversation, rumors, etc.).
At the evaluation stage, it is necessary to establish how much information can correspond to the truth. It should be taken into account that it is possible to obtain information that is not true for the following types:
• disinformation brought to the attention of the source;
• Information deliberately or inadvertently distorted by the source;
• Information that is arbitrarily or involuntarily changed during transmission.
With intentional misinformation, deliberate falsehood, half-truth, and truthful information are used, which in this context will push the person who perceives information to false conclusions. Distortions that occur during the transfer of information can occur