Mixed hierarchical structures with vertical and horizontal...

Mixed hierarchical structures with vertical and horizontal constraints

In real systems of organizational management (especially at the level of the region, the state), several types of hierarchical structures can be used simultaneously: from tree to multi-echelon. Such hierarchical structures are called mixed. At the same time, strata can serve as the basis for combining struc- tures, and therefore, in principle, we can consider them the development of a stratified representation.

In such mixed hierarchical structures there are both vertical connections of different strength (control, coordination), and horizontal interactions between elements (subsystems) of the same level.

For the first time the idea of ​​structures of this kind was proposed In . M. Glushkov when developing a nationwide automated control system.

Example

Let's give a model of the structure of state management (Figure 1.18). In our country, management has always been carried out using a mixed territorial and sectoral management principle. In accordance with this principle, the bodies of territorial and sectoral management can not be considered subordinate to each other. This has always hampered the graphical representation of the governance structure of the country.

Fig. 1.18

In Fig. 1.18 a multi-level view is taken as a basis: at the top level are the national (territorial) and sectoral management bodies (sectoral ministries); on the average, regional government bodies (republics, federal districts), among which there may exist sectoral regional ministries, departments; at the bottom - enterprises and organizations.

For simplicity, the figure does not show yet another level of governance - areas, edges, into which the republics and federal districts are divided. In this structure there is a tree hierarchical subordination of executive bodies of management of regional and national levels. At the same time, enterprises and organizations have, as a rule, double subordination - to line ministries and territorial (regional) government bodies, which corresponds to the hierarchy with "weak" connections.

In turn, between the national government authorities when making decisions on complex problems, horizontal interactions are established to coordinate decisions, exchange information, and so on. Similar ties exist between the relevant regional government bodies. During the period of granting greater autonomy to the regions and developing the economic independence of enterprises, horizontal connections arose at lower levels.

The one shown in Fig. 1.18 the structure of organizational management of the country helps to make decisions about which of the principles of governance - territorial or sectoral - should prevail in a particular period of economic development.

Of course, that in Fig. 1.18 only the general principle of relations between various government bodies is illustrated, and the real structure is formed with the help of appropriate normative legal and normative-methodological documents, which regulate specific interactions between government bodies.

The organizational structure of the modern enterprise (holding, concern, etc.) carries a mixed character. Organizational structures, called matrix ones, are actually also mixed, because they combine matrix and hierarchical representations.

thematic pictures

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